Friday, December 27, 2019

Mothers Are Women Who Inhabit Or Perform - 1251 Words

According to the Oxford Dictionary, â€Å"Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children† (1). Although various circumstances can arise, a mother may or may not be the biological parent of the youngsters. Adult females can be considered mothers because of having given birth, by nurturing their children, supplying their ovum for fertilization, or some combination thereof. For example, Suleyma Umana, a single female at the age of eighteen migrated from her native country of El Salvador to the United States in search of a better lifestyle. Once Suleyma arrived in the United States, she came across a young man named Francisco. In addition, the two-loving individuals decided to construct a house for the future children to come. Throughout the years, the couple decided to have four brilliant children named Steven, Michael, Jason, and Christopher. Suleyma Umana, currently a stay-home mother of the Umana family, strikes on the substantial responsibility of establishing a united family by setting fundamental values, enlightening vocational activities, and examining past experiences. Since childhood, Suleyma always thought it was important to incorporate several positive beliefs and values into the Umana family. The teachings the children perceive in their own home can result in positive and negative effects. Additionally, the education Suleyma received as a child largely influenced the character and personality as a grown-woman and as aShow MoreRelatedIs Abortion Unjust And Should Not Stand As A Legal Action?962 Words   |  4 PagesThe fight for the right to life is not the cause of a special few, but the cause of every man, woman and child who cares not only about his or her own family, but the whole family of man.† This quote was said by Dr. Mildred Jefferson. Many women unexpectedly become pregnant and do not know what to do next. Many of them regretfully choose abortion. To destroy the life of a human bein g is murderous and there is no reason for a doctor to take a life away rather than to save it. Life was never intendedRead MoreFamily Abuse And Child Abuse892 Words   |  4 PagesWe have all heard the saying â€Å"Home sweet home† or â€Å"Home is where the heart is.† Unfortunately for numerous people, especially women and children, home is anything but a safe haven. In our society spouse abuse, elderly abuse and child abuse is a major family-related social issue. Family abuse comes in many forms, physical violence, sexual violence and psychological and emotional abuse. Nonetheless, family violence is not unusual, perhaps this reason is because nuclear families devote to spend so muchRead MoreGender Stratification in the Workplace1147 Words   |  5 Pagesperformance expectations, isolation, and limited opportunities for promotion (352). Researchers have shown that women in a male-dominated workplace suffer from what has been called token status. A token female empl oyees high visibility often increases the pressure to perform at levels above their male peers, their isolation as male employees exaggerate the differences between men and women, and stereotyping which tends to limit opportunities for advancement. By contrast, men seem to benefit on severalRead MoreEssay about Yaeger’s Critique of Chopin’s The Awakening1003 Words   |  5 Pagesby framing female desire within â€Å"an elaborate code [of moral conduct] that has already been negotiated by her society.† A reading of The Awakening that can envision only two possible outcomes for its heroine – acquiescence to her role as good wife/mother or â€Å"liberation† from the marriage sphere through extramarital passion – suffers from the same suffocating lack of imagination that characterizes the most conventional romance tale. Thus, Yaeger contends, Edna Pontellier’s extramarital dalliances withRead MoreAnalysis of Brontà «s Villette1551 Words   |  7 Pagesto speak French, Lucy is isolated in the bustling, strange world of foreign Catholics, under the supervision of a woman who silently patrols her school and searches its inmates possessions. Lucy is appalled by this womans world of well-tended but lazy, cunning females, and to some extent she keeps herself separate from that world. She is however also attracted to these women, who represent dimensions of Lucys own characteristics and desires—Madame Beck with her independence and authority, PaulinaRead MorePhysical Body And Genitali The Biological Perspective1452 Words   |  6 Pagesdoctor’s interpretation of what the child’s sex should be. This perspective is really the scientific community’s first attempt in understanding sex and gender and how it affects everyone’s lives. There wasn’t much evidence or research of people who did not fit within the gender binary for scientists to reference, which resulted in their simplistic understanding. It has definitely informed all the perspectives that came after it and provided a platform of basic knowledge for people to start withRead MoreAbortion is Immoral Essay1518 Words   |  7 Pageswoman carrying the child. Others are Pro Life, and say that abortion is unethical and is considered as a form of homicide. All depending on one’s human dignity, the argument differs. Human dignity is the sense of self-worth and self-respect that one inhabits. With this being said, the way one feels about themselves as a human-being, as well as other human-beings, has an effect on one’s outlook on abortion. Although there is a current controversy regarding the topic of abortion, whether the argument beRead MoreGrowing Up Where, No One Looked Like Me, : Gender, Race, Hip Hop And Identity Essay1729 Words   |  7 PagesIn the article, Growing Up Where â€Å"No One Looked Like Me†: Gender, Race, Hip Hop and Identity in Vancouver Canada, author Gillian Creese examines the dimensions of gender and racialization, this study exemplifies how African-Canadian men and women are constantly faced and conflicted with identity issues. The study conducted interviews with second generation African-Canadians, ages nineteen to thirties. Participants were asked to recall moments from their childhood, in particularly their adolescenceRead MoreLocal Indigenous Australian People Of The Land On Which The Student Lives / Works / Or Studies?1234 Words   |  5 Pageshave suffered through many crises, when the British colonised Australia in 1788. Many Aboriginal people from different cultures died at hands of British colonial. There were not a lot of Aboriginal people in Australia in 19th century. Mostly, they inhabit in NSW, Queensland and Victoria. There are many cultures in NSW, one of the oldest culture in Sydney is the Darug, they are the traditional owners of Western and south Western areas of Sydney. The Darug nation is large in size and boasts many clansRead MoreThe Church Of The Brethren2100 Words   |  9 Pageslove by which God creates and nurtures human life (1984). This is the Church of Brethren s official position concerning abortion. They feel they are responsible for the children who are unwanted. They believe in various alternatives to abortion for the people in their community. They still will love and support those who believe that eliminating a child from their womb is the correct thing. Opposing abortion falls in favor with the majority of the Church of the Brethren. However, meetings are held

Thursday, December 19, 2019

How Do I Relate My Faith In Good God With All The...

Sometimes I wonder why tragic things happen and if it’s a part of God’s plan. My faith teaches me that God wants us to be in good health, even as our soul prospers in 3 John 2, (KJV, 1994). When I see events like 911, Hurricane Katrina, the Tsunami and the Haiti Earthquake I sometimes wonder why these things have to happen. I know that I can not blame God because some things are man made. Everyone suffers at some point in our lives, whether it’s a divorce, cancer, an accident, a disability or a homicide we all have pain. The bible tells us God causes all things to work together for good for those that love Him and are called according to His purpose in Romans 8:28 (KJV, 1994). That suggests that some of the tragic events must†¦show more content†¦My grandmother was the rock of our family and she kept everyone together with our folklore and old remedies. She taught me how to pray and communicate with God and after she died I thought that I had lost my con nection with God. The thing that got me going was remembering her voice saying â€Å"Nete† you have to develop your own personal relationship with God. So I began my personal and intimate relationship with him and over the years things began to get a little easier, even though I still miss her and wish she was here (Elnita Thacker, 2011). During the ugliest times in this country’s history slaves had to cling to their religion and prayer to make it through. Africans had a great faith in God and believed that he would see them through all the rapes, beatings, drowning, hangings, murders and any other inhumane acts of cruelty. Fredrick Douglas spoke about how slaves were to depend on God who sent a â€Å"Redeemer† to set the captive free as it says in Luke 4:18, â€Å"The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the o ppressed†. The slaves believed that they had to suffer oppression to abide by the worlds of the bible. They thought that they had gone against their master’s will as it says in Luke 12:47, He that knoweth his masters will and doeth it not, shall be beaten withShow MoreRelatedBible Study on Romans 1:1-71309 Words   |  5 PagesJesus was raised from the dead, he was declared the Son of God in power. Through Jesus Christ we have received grace and apostleship to bring about obedience of faith in his name. Jesus loves all of us and calls us to himself. Response I learned from this passage that Jesus loves each and everyone one of us. I know he is our savior because he fulfilled an Old Testament prophecy that no other person could achieve. I can apply this passage to my life by spreading the word to others just as Paul did toRead MoreKierkegaards Fear And Trembling Essay1650 Words   |  7 PagesKierkegaards Fear and Trembling What is a human person? How do human beings relate to God? Who am I? Why do I exist? I. Soeren Kierkegaard, a famous theologian of the 19th Century, wrote Fear and Trembling in 1843 in response to Hegelianism. Kierkegaard takes on the pseudonymous role of Jonannes de Silentio and speaks on modern peoples attitudes toward doubt and faith. He believes humans are creatures entrenched in reason and doubt but not in the same sense as Descartes, a French mathematicianRead MoreWorldview Essay1313 Words   |  6 Pagesof beliefs that shape what we do on a daily basis and forms our overall view on life. When I look at my beliefs critically, I am able to see my worldview and see how it compares to different worldviews, but also how it compares mainly to the Christian Worldview. My view of God is very similar to the non-denomination Christian Worldview. I believe that God is an omnipotent Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit that oversees the entire universe. I believe that God created everything in his imageRead MoreThe Eclipse Of God And The Need For The Jews1680 Words   |  7 Pages The eclipse of God and the need for the Jews to prove their faith in God stands out as another key response by the Jews. According to Jewish theologians, there are times in the history of religion that God had adamantly refused to show his face to the world. In the Holocaust context, the Jewish theologians argue that God was intentionally absent during this period to test the Jewish and their endurance through suffering. Admittedly, this premise is particularly complex because a section of the theologiansRead MoreMy Paper On Job Life1687 Words   |  7 Pagesand focus on God in these moments because the pain can outweigh the prize. I decided to do my paper on Job because I find Job s life similar to mine. There is times in my life that I don’t understand what God is doing, times I ve asked what I ve done to deserve the suffering and the weight of catastrophes in life. Job is inspirational in these moments because he encourages the understanding that God s power is so great, n o person can justify his ways. Job taught me to trust God despite what weRead MoreArticle Analysis : Aquinas For Armchair Theologians Essay1349 Words   |  6 Pagesdifferent topics of God vs. Satan, and why God has not all the answers, and powers when making sure every human being should not face evil. Aquinas believed that Christians needed to view their basic beliefs in another way to make sense of their own faith when questioning all that God did for each individual. The real question to all this, which a lot of people even question today is â€Å"Why is their evil in the World?† Well unfortunately some believe their (omnipotent) God has all the answers and knowsRead MoreEssay on Mary Mackillop1628 Words   |  7 Pagesout of 8 and spent most of her childhood years looking after and acting like a second mother to her siblings. The MacKillop family were quite poor so at the young age of 14, Mary got herself a job as a governess and as teacher at a Portland school. All the money Mary earned went towards her families everyday living. While working as a governess, Mary met Father Julian Tension Woods. By the time Mary had reached the age of 15 she had decided that she wanted to be a nun. She also wanted to devote herRead MoreThe Existence Of Evil : Evil1451 Words   |  6 Pagesacknowledge that evil is all around us. By simply turning on the news, we are immediately bombarded with reports of violent murders, dangerous storms, robberies and a new dangerous disease affecting half of the countries in the world. There is no denying that people suffer because we ha ve experienced pain and suffering ourselves. At one point or another in our lives, we are confronted by the existence of evil. With this confrontation, we are subjected to the many theories of why and how evil exists. We questionRead MoreHow Does The Justice Of God Fit With The Love? Essay800 Words   |  4 Pages How could a loving God send people to Hell? If God is so good than why do bad things happen to good people? These are some of the questions that cause most people to stay away from the Christian faith. People don’t want to worship God because they have no respect for Him. But have you ever wondered why do good things happen to bad people? Or better yet, how does the justice of God fit with the love of God? Content Theodicy is the defense of God’s goodness and omnipotence in the view of evilRead MoreChristianity And Judaism : Christianity Vs. Judaism Essay1706 Words   |  7 PagesComparing how these two religions justify the nature of human existence and nature of God; human suffering; and the afterlife will highlight these differences. In addition, each religion’s view of the major holidays, and how they interact peacefully with other religions are also important distinctions. Christianity and Judaism have some differences on the belief of nature and purpose of human existence. Christians, believe we were created good but because of original sin, we tend to do morally wrong

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Lehman Brothers Incorporation Limited

Question: Discuss about the Lehman Brothers Incorporation Limited. Answer: Lehman Brothers-Background and Success Story Lehman Brothers is an incorporation having its welcome prints in the year 1850. It was founded by Henry Lehman, a German immigrant, in 1844. The business was started as a small store providing small items of necessity like utensils, grocery items, goods etc. Six years later, the business was joined by Emanuel Lehman and Mayer Lehman, and the three Lehman Brothers started working as a common entity in the year 1850 and named the business Lehman Brothers.(Fineman, 2008) The firm played a major role in the upliftment of cotton and coffee market. It also accepted an offer to work as Governments agent for dealing in commodities market. Till the end of 19th Century, Lehman Brothers found its core business area and had begun to conquer the market as a leading and emerging business tycoon. In the beginning of 20th Century, the firm had its partnerships and MOUs with many companies like Sears, Roebuck co., Woolworth co., Gimbel Brothers Inc., May Department Store and RH Mary co.(Adu-Gyamfi, 2015). These partnerships could evident the interest of Lehman Brothers in the upliftment of retail business. Steadily but not slowly, Lehman Brothers started showing its mastery in the stock and commodities market. The introduction of Private Placement is the gift of Lehman Brothers. This was as a result of a great downfall in the stock market during the Great Depression of 1929. Lehman Brothers started the concept of privately placing the shares to the relatives, companies etc. This concept proved very helpful in boosting the value of the business in global market. Lehman Brothers marked its footprints in the Investment Banking in the year 1994 by opening several offices and recruiting various employees. The firm also merged with the fourth largest Investment Bank of the time-Kuhn Loeb Co. The market was introduced with another major merger of the time which was the merger of E.F. Hutton co. with Shearson Lehman which proved very helpful in the formation of Lehman Brothers Investment Bank. The result was due to failure of the merger of E.F. Hutton co. with Shearson Lehman. The Investment banking business was named Lehman Brothers Incorporation Limited and it had its IPO in 1994. (Adu-Gyamfi, 2015) The firms major revenue generating source was mortgage backed securities. It initiated its major business in subprime mortgage market. Subprime Mortgage Securities are the securities having low credit worthiness and therefore an individual doesnt get credit on the basis of these securities. Lehman Brothers started providing credit on the basis of these securities. Though, the business was very risky but it had huge revenue generating capacities which taken the firm to new levels of success. In 2007, the firm became the leading underwriter of mortgage securities and a leader in stock market as well. Collapse of Lehman Brothers and Global Financial Crisis The major reasons for collapse of Lehman Brothers could be categorized into four major parts. First reason was a downfall in the housing prices. Lehman Brothers had its major investment in subprime mortgage securities. Subprime Mortgage securities have low credit worthiness and these securities contribute the major part of the assets of the Lehman business. Due to overinvestment in such risky securities, the business earned huge revenues initially but had its huge downfall also since the housing prices had a great decline. The overall downfall in the economic market was the reason for such heavy downfall in the housing prices. The value of the assets of the business fell sharply and the business debt to assets ratio started increasing crossing the highest ratio acceptable by the American Government. There were several other financing institutions which crossed the highest debt to assets ratio acceptable by American Government and Lehman business was one of them. Second reason was the investment in Repo105 and Repo108 securities. Repo105 meant lending cash by mortgage of securities having value more than 5% of the credit extended and Repo108 meant lending cash by mortgage of securities having value more than 8% of the credit extended. This decision was very judicious on the part of the financial officers of the business as Repo securities extended credit to credit worthy clients only and the securities taken from the clients were able to generate enough cash to compensate any failure. Though, the decision was a prudent one considering the situation of market but the shortfall was in the treatment of the securities. Lehman Brothers treated the securities received during Repo transaction as sales and used cash to discharge the liabilities. The Repo securities were used to window dress the financial position of the business in the market. The third reason is the incapability of the managers to oversee the future conditions and inefficient risk management strategies. The CEO of Lehman Brothers at the time of its bankruptcy had earned billions of dollars from the business but could not nurture the growth and prosperity. The CFO and CEO are mainly responsible to oversee the future potential of a business and to recommend preventive and corrective actions so that the future inefficiencies could be overcome. The bankruptcy had led to retrenchment of a number of employees who lost their source of earning and living. The firm could have provided proper and regular methods to the employees so that they could make themselves prepared for the worst outcomes. They were the most innocent people who had to bear the foolishness of some handful of senior employees. The auditors on the other hand were also ignorant about the financial repercussions of the activities undertaken by the business to make its financial position look bette r to the stakeholders. The audit work, despite of being in hands of such efficient and reputed audit firm could not fulfill its responsibilities. The fourth and the last reason which finally resulted in the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Incorporation Limited was the lack of support from American Government. Initially, the Korea Development Bank agreed to take over the business but it could not be materialized due to some problems with the regulators. Again, Barclays Bank agreed for a take-over but it was disapproved by the US government which eventually marked an end of Lehman Brothers. Global Financial Crisis The firms collapse had a major impact on the prices of global stock market indices. There was worldwide devastating effect on the bankruptcy and this phenomenon had been marked as one of the biggest downfalls in the stock market. After the filing of bankruptcy by the Lehman brothers, The Reserve Primary Fund, which was considered one of the largest money market mutual funds, lost its share price. This phenomenon was referred as Breaking the Buck.(Tymkiw, 2012). Apart from that, above 75 such administration cases were recorded. There were a number of such studies which reveal the condition of market after the collapse of Lehman Brothers.(Ranjeen, 2015). No market was left untouched by the devastation. The US market, the Chinese market etc. were adversely affected. One such instance supporting the statement was shown by the 4.4% drop of New York Dow Jones Industrial Average. This was the largest drop of that time (Duncan, 2012). The European market was also part of same. There was 3.92 % fall in FTSE Index, 3.78% fall in Paris CAC and 3.6% fall in NASDAQ Composite. These all recorded the biggest fall in the market after the 2001 attack in US. Even the Asian countries were not left. Major countries like India, Taiwan, and Singapore etc. witnessed constant declines in stock and commodities market. Further, Japan, Hongkong and South Korea faced biggest fall of their histories. (Adu-Gyamfi, 2015) All the above mentioned events show that the collapse of Lehman Brothers was not a failure of single company or a single market or a single countrys economy. This failure was a massive failure of the overall investment market which could be witnessed worldwide. The effect of such failure took a number of years to vanish from the market. The big businessmen especially the Investment Bankers started taking the adherence policies of their Governments too seriously. The Auditors responsibilities took a major turning point. In the Lehmans case, the auditors were seriously accused of their gross ignorance and lack of due diligence and prudence. The auditors are expected to perform their services according to the prescribed standards of work and they cannot change their actions from the quality standards prescribed by various regulatory and administrative boards. The senior employees also held an important role in the failure of Lehman Brothers. The employees and workers of any company is r esponsible for the upliftment of the companys status. The foolish behavior of workers and short sightedness of senior employees could lead to a dangerous result to a company. The roles of employees were increased by enactment of various Corporate Governance measures. Thus, a global impact was witnessed by the world due to failure of a handful of people. Auditors role and responsibilities The auditors roles and liabilities are mentioned in the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) by the International Auditing and Assurance Board (IAASB). These standards set a framework of work by the auditors while performing audit and assurance services to their clients. The auditors are the watchdogs of the business concerns. They are expected to provide their opinion on the financial prudency as well as competencies of a business. The centre work of an auditor is to provide an unbiased opinion on the financial statements of the business and to assure the stakeholders regarding full disclosure of all material transactions. The Lehman Brothers Incorporation limited was audited by Ernst and Young, a reputed audit firm having global recognition. Ernst and Young is considered one of the Big Four Audit firms all over the world. Having recorded its perfection in various audit work various time, this audit firm underperformed in the Lehman Brothers case. The shortcomings of Lehmans business were not even pointed out by such an expert audit firm. There were many audit inefficiencies like the treatment of Repo transactions should have been bought to the notice of stakeholders by the auditors and the auditors should have qualified their report. The accounting inefficiencies like the Repo transactions being shown as sales and not made part of liabilities was a major concern. Further, there was improper disclosure of such transactions and the stakeholders were unaware of the transactions. But nothing was pinned by the auditors. The auditors considered trusting the business managers vision when it was about the adh erence of accounting standards. Though the standard for not clear, but the auditors should have understood that the standard was formed for the betterment of general and not the specific. They must have rejected the owners way of showing things and stood by the Boards. Further, the International accounting standard for Repurchase transactions had a major loophole. It did not provide a benchmark for the treatment of such transactions and Lehmans took advantage of such loophole and was defended by the auditors. The International accounting standards were revised after the collapse. The International accounting standards Board (IASB) and Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) met in April 2010 and had their discussion regarding the question to overcome such loophole for accounting of repo transactions. However, the auditors were expected to see the facts in the light of its duties to the stakeholders and not as a follower of the accounting and auditing standards. The auditors, in such cases, need to show utmost professionalism and serious work and not support such business devastations blindfolded. The revised accounting standard on accounting for repo transactions was issued in June, 2014 (via Update No. 2014-11), Transfers and Servicing (Topic 860): Repurchase-to-Maturity Transactions, Repurchase Financings, and Disclosures. (FASB, 2014) According to the guideline, the repurchase transactions will not be accounted as sales. Earlier, the transfer of a financial asset could be combined with the repurchase financing and both are accounted as a forward agreement. This treatment resulted in window dressing of Balance Sheets by many investors.(FASB, 2014). With the revised format, the Generally Accepted Accounting Standards were aligned with the International standards of reporting popularly known as IFRS. Therefore, the auditors are required to comply with the new guidelines and show greater professionalism and prudence in providing the audit and assurance services especially while auditing such a huge and globally renowned institution. Recommendations The audit and role of auditors had never been into such a limelight before. The Association of Chartered Accountants (ACCA) has assessed an auditors role in the downfall of a business concern. ACCA has firm belief that the auditors bring value to business and the expanding economies. This is done by the trust of stakeholder which is reflected by the governing structure of corporate reporting. ACCA have met several time to see the case for the role of audit and that how it can extended to meet stakeholder expectations more efficiently.(ACCA, 2011). The auditors were always expected to show professional competency but the global financial crisis led to a series of inquiry into the roles and liabilities of auditors. This is evident from the European Commissions Green paper on auditing, the UK Economic affairs Committees inquiry, the US Public Company Accounting Oversight Boards examinations etc. All of these highly emphasized that the auditors should not be a blind follower of the standards formulated. The major recommendations which came forward post global financial crisis inquiries are:- The big four audit firms should be assigned the task of auditing of Big concerns. The reason behind such decision is that if one of the big firms fail to perform the required services then the other will need to choose from the remaining ones and not to get confused about the suitability of various audit firms. The auditors should perform the audit services keeping in mind the requirement of the stakeholders and the society because in case of failure there can be legal action against the auditor by the stakeholders. The auditor should perform non-audit services keeping in the mind the required independence on the part of auditors. The huge consultancy prices should not attract the auditors as the auditor is expected to perform their duties independently and any relation to the business may hamper its scope of duties and independent examination. The points mentioned in Sarbanes Oxley Act, 2008 should be clearly understood to see the motive of the enactment. The enactment was a result of a series of financial crunches like Enron and Worlcom and is seen as a major industrial turnaround. The auditors should not stick to one company our concern for a longer period of time as this may seriously hamper the independence as well as the audit scope and duties. The longer duration of audit engagements not only satisfies the client regarding strictness in audit policies but it also make the auditor reluctant to see any irregular transactions or activities and he prejudices the nature of work of his clients. The Going Concern assumption of the business should be clearly overviewed because after the global financial crisis, a number of financial institutions were getting indulged in window dressing their financial position by using various monetary and non-monetary measures. The going concern assumption may not be there in some cases as the financial statements must be showing highly valued assets but the actual valuation and position would be much lower. Thus, the auditors responsibilities regarding the going concern has increased. Works Cited ACCA, 2011. Audit under fire: a review of the post-financial crisis inquiries. [Online] Avail able at:[Accessed 17 January 2017]. Adu-Gyamfi, M., 2015. The A nalysis of the Collapse of Lehman Brothers. [Online] Avail able at: file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/SSRN-id2771615.pdf[Accessed 17 January 2017]. Duncan, S., 2012. Causes of Collapse: The Failure of Lehman Brother Holdings, Inc.. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 17 January 2017]. FASB, 2014. FASB IMPROVES FINANCIAL REPORTING OF REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS. [Online] Avail able at:[Accessed 17 January 2017]. Fineman, J. . O. Y., 2008. Lehman Brothers' Corporate History and Chronology. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 17 January 2017]. PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2009. Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy: Lessons Learned for. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 17 January 2017]. Ranjeen, K. . S. S., 2015. The effects of Lehman Brothers bankruptcy on the. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 17 January 2017]. Tymkiw, C., 2012. Pioneers of money market funds cleared of fraud. [Online] Availa ble at: [Accessed 17 January 2017].

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Levels Of Processing And Memory 1 Essays - Mental Processes, Memory

Levels of Processing and Memory 1 Abstract: Craik and Lockhart (1972) developed a theory in which they discussed the levels of processing. The theory states, the more a word is processed, due to its meaning, the better the word is retained. In our experiment we presented subjects with a yes or no question pertaining to the meaning of a word or the appearance of a word and then measured their reaction time. Subjects were then asked to recall as many words that they could remember, results showed that there was a significant difference in reaction times and the number of words that were recalled. Introduction: According to Dewey Rundus (1971) the more an item is rehearsed, the higher the probability the item will be remembered. Herman Ebbinghaus (1885) concluded that in order to remember and learn items we must repeat them. He developed the nonsense syllable, which is a word that is composed of two consonants with a vowel in between. A nonsense syllable could not be a real word (would not be found in the dictionary). Ebbinghaus wanted to minimize the effects of association that have already been made with words that we are familiar with. Using nonsense syllables he determined that frequency of appearance is directly Levels of Processing and Memory 2 correlated with the amount one recalls (Lundin 1996). The rehearsal theory states that recall should mimic reaction time in our experiment. The longer a word is kept in mind, the better it will be recalled. Repetition plays an important role in the processes of memory but it is not the only factor that affects how much one can recall. Craik and Watkins (1973) disputed that repetition improves memory. They performed an experiment to determine that repetition didn't improve memory but that the speed which the words were presented. Subjects were read a list of words, but before they heard the words they were given a critical letter and were asked to remember the last word from the list that began with that particular letter. Subjects thought that they could ignore the other words on the list that did not pertain to the critical letter. The subjects were then unexpectedly asked to recall as many words from the list that they could remember and not just the ones that contained the critical letter. Craik and Watkins (1973 did not find a relation between the amount of words recalled and rehearsed. Craik and Lockhart (1972) developed a theory in which they discussed the levels of processing. The theory states, the more a word is processed, due to its meaning, the better Levels of Processing and Memory 3 the word is retained. The time that one is exposed to the stimuli is of last importance but the stimulus that is analyzed due to its meaning is more deeply processed and is remembered better. The level of processing theory differs from Rundus (1971) theory on repetition. Rundus felt that if one were exposed to a word repeatedly then they would be more likely to recall it. Craik and Lockhart (1972), their theory of processing states that it does not matter how many times or how long the word is shown, but if the meaning of the word was thought about the meaning of the word, then the word would be more easily recalled. Subjects: Ten random college students participated in this experiment. Each subject was used in both conditions. Each condition contained a question with ten words. Each subject answered two questions, one pertaining to the meaning of ten words and the other pertaining to the appearance of ten words. There was actually twenty answers, each question was asked before each word was given. Levels of Processing and Memory 4 Apparatus: To create our experiment my partner and I used the Aldus Superpaint program and the Mindlab program on a Macintosh computer. Procedure: First we chose two questions. The question that pertained to the meaning words was " Is this alive?" The question that pertained to the appearance word was "Are there more consonants than vowels?" Next we needed ten words for each question that subjects could answer with a yes or no response. It was very difficult finding words that would pertain to both questions, but after a lot of thought and searching my partner and I found 10 words for each

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Measuring Economic Health Essay Example

Measuring Economic Health Essay Measuring Economic Health Name: Course: Instructor: We will write a custom essay sample on Measuring Economic Health specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Measuring Economic Health specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Measuring Economic Health specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Institution: Date: Measuring Economic Health Economics is the study of production, allocation and consumption of goods and services in either a household or industry at large. The economy of a country plays a vital role in knowing how the development process will advance. The economic health of a country should therefore, be monitored to ensure that the country does not go into a recession. The indicators of a country’s economic health are; interest rates, wealth distribution, per capita income, inflation rates, unemployment levels, balance of payment and gross domestic product or gross national product. The government studies these indicators in order to make sure its country’s economic health is excellent (Henderson, 2008). Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) is the market value of all the goods produced within a country in a given year. Business cycle refers to fluctuations that take place in the economy over a certain period. The rate at which G.D.P increases or decreases helps to measure business cycles. When the G.D.P of a country increases, the business cycle is going to go through an expansion. When the G.D.P declines, the business cycle is then going to go through a recession. Thus, G.D.P and business cycles have a direct correlation to each other (Rittenberg, Tregarthen Mikalson, 2011). Various government bodies determine the national fiscal policies that a country decides to take how they are implemented and maintained. The Treasury department, which is in charge of government spending, administers and creates fiscal policies. It ensures that the policies are implemented as per how they were constructed. The Management and Budget Office assist the treasury department to conduct inquiries regarding the needs of the citizens of that country. They do this by providing information necessary in decision-making and then implement the new policies that are needed. The office of the president has the final say in the national fiscal policies that are implemented in a country. To ensure that the policies will help in a country the government accountability office audits it. It makes sure that the fiscal policies are up to par with the country’s development policies. Interest rates and Taxation are fiscal policies that affect production and employment respectively. Change in interest rates affects money supply in an economy. If interest rates are increased on loans are increased, it means that less people will take out loans but when thus reducing the money supply in the economy. When interest rates are reduced, money supply increases. Tax reduces an individual’s disposable income and thus affects employment. A decrease in tax affects may lead to an increase in employment opportunities. Increase in tax, on the other hand, is viewed by citizens as a form of punishment discouraging people from paying tax. This is because they prefer being paid under the table. Government spending and taxes affect the economy’s production and employment. This is because when the government spending increases and taxes reduce, it results in an increase in money supply. This is because the government pays for part of the consumer’s expenditure through subsidies and there are fewer taxes to be paid. The negative side of fiscal policies can be felt when the government spending is reduced, and taxation is increased. This will in turn result in the consumer paying more for the basic commodities that he or she might need. Therefore, the economic health of a country is determined by the fiscal policies that a government may choose to employ. Reference: Rittenberg, L., Tregarthen, T. D., Mikalson, B. (2011). Principles of macroeconomics version 1.1.1. Irvington, NY: Flatworld Knowledge. Henderson, D. R. (2008). The concise encyclopedia of economics. Indianapolis, Ind: Liberty Fund.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Latin MusicHere to Stay or Gone Tomorrow essays

Latin MusicHere to Stay or Gone Tomorrow essays Thesis sentence: The music industry has experienced a drastic impact as a result of the rise in Latino Music. The increased popularity shows a rise in CD purchases, Latino stardom, and the ethnic values of an old culture. The impact has also influenced relations between the United States and Latin America. I. Latin American music represents the Hispanic culture of the artist. II. The artists express individuality influenced by the region they came from, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Chili, or Brazil. III. While Latin hits top the charts in the United States the musicians influence: A. Issues surrounding differences in American and Latin culture. B. Politics and policies in the United States that have had a long affect on Hispanic social acceptance issues. IV. Critics review the increase in popularity of Latin music as temporary and will decline in time stating. An essential element of a great era is rated by the amount of time the musician spends in the studio. A. Lengthy production time will cause a decline in sales. B. BMG and EMI are two of the famous music labels making investments in the Latin Music craze. The music industry has experienced a drastic impact as a result of the rise in Latino Music. The increased popularity shows a rise in CD purchases, Latino stardom, and the ethnic values of an old culture. The impact has also influenced relations between the United States and Latin America. The cultural expression in the music and popularity of artists have paved the way, or broken the ice for the Latin image in the United States and surrounding continents. Author John Lannert, whose works are the most up to date on the subject asks the question ...will the current passion for Latino artists be ultimately deemed a summer fling? (Lannert, Latin). In order to examine the effects of this trend, one must understand where this culture has originated their music expressions and content. The relation bet...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Group Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Group Project - Assignment Example The club has also provided an option for training parents along side the children so that they can also develop their skills. It is a good forum because parents get the necessary training and support they need to help their children. Pyramid club adopts early intervention strategies that are aimed at helping children, who show signs of mental difficulties instead of waiting until the problem worsen. It is very important to provide early intervention strategies to children, who show early signs of mental problems to prevent them from suffering severe mental cases when they become adults. The aim of this program is to provide children with social and emotional skills so that they can live a happy life. Pyramid meets the key requirements to cater for children suffering from mental problems (Ohl, Fox & Mitchell, 2013). The club provides evidence based intervention that demonstrates its purpose and analyses its needs clearly. In addition, the pyramid also provides a baseline for measurement and gives feedback on the outcomes. The club is well equipped with facilities for intervention and are enough to cater for all children. Well-targeted clubs like pyramid provide efficient intervention clubs that will later lead to better outcomes and improve children skills. Children are selected for pyramid club using Goodman’s SDQ questionnaire that is used to measure their social skills and emotional development. SDQ questioner is later replaced with ContinYou’s questioner that is provided by parents and young adults. This replacement is part of a screening process and evaluation of the club. Consequently, those who manage the club take part in post evaluation processes. This club was developed and has been extensively tested in the US. The assessment includes qualitative and quantitative measurement and response from children and young adults. The University of Ulster follows a strength-based research that reflects learners flourishing theory, and

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Internet fame Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Internet fame - Essay Example Although I personally never experienced a breach of privacy or leakage of important information, I’ve known friends who had thus suffered. A friend of mine had the most embarrassing experience, as her pajama party photographs got leaked into the public domain. She posted the pictures in her Facebook profile, setting access to only those who are her friends. But perhaps as a result of someone hacking into her profile and downloading these pictures, they got out into the public domain of the Internet. A big fan of social networking sites like Facebook, my friend is yet to overcome the embarrassment caused by the leak. She is now very hesitant to post or share any sensitive information in these sites and is regretful that she trusted them in the past. It makes sense for her to exercise caution from now on, for these leaks could prove very costly. In this instance she only has to bear through minor social embarrassment. But there are leaks that could prove more damaging, as in hav ing one’s credit card details hacked or professional accounts becoming accessible to miscreants. If this were to happen, she could face severe monetary loss or a dent to her professional reputation. Hence, she has to take all precautions in the future to avoid these

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Explain the potential of Diaspora groups to contribute to the process Essay

Explain the potential of Diaspora groups to contribute to the process of conflict resolution in at least TWO case studies of you - Essay Example The reasons for leaving home include war, famine and seeking economic benefit. For the last twenty years, various researchers have carried out numerous studies to evaluate the ways in which Diasporas groups may impact both their home societies and host societies, but most of these studies fail to notice the potential of Diaspora groups to contribute to peace-building.2 There is a basis for reinforcing the inclusion of Diasporas groups in foreign policies and business policies to advance trade relations, however, safety for political development is a prevailing issue both in the public and expert circles.3 However, recent research has indicated that Diaspora groups can actively take part in the process of peace building and reconstruction in countries affected by conflict.4 Therefore, it should be noted that Diaspora groups have a greater potential to contribute towards the process of conflict resolution on conflicts affecting their home countries. This paper uses two case studies to analyses the capacity of Diaspora groups to play a role in the process of peace building. The two case studies are the Cyprus Conflict and the Ethiopian Conflict. In the Cyprus Conflict, analysis and evaluation of the role played by the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots Diaspora groups in resolving conflict issues at their homeland has been done, while the role of Ethiopian Diaspora groups based in European countries and in the United States of America, in promoting a peaceful of the political crisis in their home country has been evaluated. This paper also discusses the various ways, through which the Diaspora groups from the aforementioned countries influenced the process of peace building. How Diasporas Contribute to the Process of Conflict Resolution Diasporas can contribute to conflict resolution by lobbying host land governments and international organisations, as well as aiding processes of transition to achieve political cooperation and non-violent resolution of political crises in their home country.5 Diaspora groups can also apply pressure to homeland governments and rebels to enhance non-violence conflict resolution, as well as, domestic development. For instance, Diaspora organisations, through host land governments, pressure war parties in the homeland to refrain from violence6. Instead they urge them to embrace non-violence interaction modes by discovering and drawing attention to their human rights abuses. Diaspora groups also influence the political realm in their home country by challenging their homeland government through support to the government or the opposition.7 This is done by offering funds and other forms of assistance to political parties, civil society organisations and social movements.8 Also, Diaspora groups with the right to vote can participate in the voting process, which can resolve a conflict within their homeland and promote peace building. The power of Diaspora groups to frame homeland conflict in various ways contribute s to peaceful resolution of conflict. For instance, some of the activities of Diaspora groups strengthen some confrontational, homeland leaders and organisations, while other homeland leaders and organisations are undermined. This forces undermined organisations and leaders to seek compromise, and this resolves a conflict peacefully, avoiding violence.9 A prime example is that of the Ethiopian Diaspora

Friday, November 15, 2019

Greenhouse gas emissions causing climate change

Greenhouse gas emissions causing climate change Introduction Climate change is the consequence of any kind of adjustments in the climate system. Change in climate is caused by fluctuations in the factors that influence climatic patterns. This phenomenon has become one of the greatest environmental threats and risks that the world is facing. Persistent human activities such as driving cars, farming, deforestation, and industrialization result into production of greenhouse gases. These gases gather in the atmospheric space, and trap the heat from the sun. This is what causes climate change manifested through global warming and other processes. The effects of disruptive changes have led to catastrophic events like storms, droughts, rise in the sea levels, and floods (Kammen Casillas 2010, p. 1181). Climate change is majorly caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Most of the intervention efforts meant to mitigate the impacts of climate change thus target human activities that contribute to additional emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (Letcher ScienceDirect 2009, p. 67). Therefore, renewable energy has been considered as one of the leading solutions to climate change. Provision of ‘carbon-neutral sources of power, heat, transport fuels and renewable energy options has been considered by environmental scientists as a great move in the right direction. The objective is to enact a transition from high to low carbon economy. Although the renewable energy sector is quickly changing, climate change crises dictate that the energy system be drastically transformed. This will help in combating the dangers that are associated with global warming that threatens to slump the global economy in the face of globalization and industrialization. Roggema (2009, p. 211) cited air pollution caused by transport and power sectors of the economy have been a great threat not only to the human health but have also shifted the climate systems. Prospective Interventions to Address Climate Change Crisis Climate change as an environmental problem is essentially a problem caused by the extreme utilization of fossil energy. Agriculture, changes in land use, cement production and use of chemicals all contribute to the emission of the greenhouse gases (Roggema 2009, p. 234). However, 70% of the global warming/climate change problems is caused by unsustainable use of fossil fuels. Therefore, in order to deal with the problems related to climate change, there has to be a shift from use of fossil fuels at home, in the industries, transport and generally the entire sectors of the economy (Roggema 2009, p. 203). In order to avert the challenges associated with climate change, saving of energy is essential. Electricity, automobiles and carbon emissions are the main causes of problems related to climate change. The regular incandescent light bulbs should thus be changed and replaced with the energy saving compact fluorescent bulbs which are more efficient and energy saving. The emissions that result from automobiles like motor vehicles, motorcycles should also be reduced (Letcher ScienceDirect 2009, p. 154). Climate change has been caused by human activities such as deforestation in search of more space for agricultural activities. Therefore carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere continues to rise. Being a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide has contributed to the rise of global temperatures. Roggema (2009, p. 183) cited that human activities that encroach to the environment should thus be limited to prevent further crises associated with global warming. Traditional methods of conservation of forest ecosystems should be embraced to preserve the ecosystem and mitigate the effects of climate change (Tracy 2010, p.353). Therefore reforestation should be encouraged so that the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide are reduced from the atmosphere. Farming activities that promote environmental hazards such as soil erosion should thus be limited and replaced with farming approaches that are environmentally custodial. Industrialization is the major contributor to climate change. This is because of the emission of the greenhouse gases like Nitrous Oxide and Carbon dioxide (Tracy 2010, p. 354). In order to avert climate change challenges there should be focus on change in the energy used in the industries from the dirty to clean energy. Climate change scientists have advocated for the use of renewable energy as the solution to the climate change problems that are caused by the use of environmentally hazardous fuels like coal and nuclear energy in the industries in the global economy (Tracy 2010, p. 355). Climate Change and the options for Renewable Energy Human activities and natural environmental processes are all responsible for climate change. Natural causes include volcanic eruptions, ocean currents, changes in the earths orbit and solar variations. An eruption of volcanoes throws out great volumes of sulphur dioxide, water vapor, dust, and ash into the atmosphere (Wengenmayr 2008, p. 141). The large volumes of gases and ash have the ability to influence climatic patterns by increasing the planetary reflectivity leading to atmospheric cooling. The aerosols are produced by volcanoes also affects the purity of air in the atmosphere. These contribute greatly to climate change. The oceans currents are considered a great threat to the climate stability. The currents release great amounts of heat across the planet. Besides, the interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere can produce El Nino. The oceans determine the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This implies that changes in the ocean circulation greatly affects climate and significantly contributes to the climate (Wengenmayr 2008, p. 231). Climate change has been caused by human activities. MacZulak (2010, p. 9) cited that this is majorly through the burning of fossil fuels, changes in the land use, and industrialization. With industrial revolution of the 19th century, fossil fuels have been used to support industrial processes. Fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas have been great energy supplies for the industrialized economies. However, these sources of energy have contributed to great emissions of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These are responsible for climate change (MacZulak 2010, p. 8). Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased because of human activities such as deforestation and agriculture. Methane is released through oil drilling, mining of coal, leaking gas pipelines, landfills and waste dumps (MacZulak 2010, p. 9). These greenhouse gases cause great increase in the climate change and are significantly responsible for global warming. The greatest cause of climate change and global warming however is the burning of the fossil fuels. These fuels cause emission of greenhouse gases into the earths atmosphere leading to depletion of the ozone layer and global warming (Twidell Weir 2006, p. 143). Options for Renewable Energy The term renewable energy is used in reference to the energy resources that occur naturally in the environment and can always be re-used after the initial function. Examples of this energy are the solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy.   Rivers, biomass and garbage are also considered as renewable energies (Abid, Crawford Davoudi 2009, p.167). Renewable energy is the future of the earths energy needs. However, in order to effectively combat climate change-related challenges, the global mean temperatures have to be kept below two degrees Celsius. This calls for prior planning and transformation of the industrial sectors use of energy. Renewable energy has the potential decreasing the use of fossil fuels that are to blame for most of the problems associated with climate change (Abid et al 2009, p. 169). Renewable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, and the bio-fuels are increasingly being used as energy alternatives. With the climate change and its crises, such form of energy has the advantage of energy security since the fossil fuels will be depleted as a result of climate change. Climate change is largely a consequence of anthropogenic activities such as burning of the fossil fuels, industrial processes, deforestation and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It is estimated that the power sector by itself contributes about 40% of the total carbon emissions (Abid et al 2009, p. 297). This can only be altered by shifting to the use of renewable energy. Climatic impacts such as tsunamis, droughts, wildfires, floods, storms, heat waves and tornados are consequences of climate change (MacZulak 2010, p. 8). However, according to the climate change specialists, clean air policy that includes use of renewable energy can substantially mitigate the negative impacts of climate change caused by fossil fuels. Renewable energy technologies are considered to be the most potential mitigation for greenhouse gases. In the steadily growing awareness on the importance of environmental protection priorities, renewable energy is considered appropriate in the mitigation of climate change effects (Chiras 2007, p. 67). Renewable energy is the alternative to the climate change crises since it does not produce greenhouse gas emissions and pollute the air as is the case with the fossil fuels. Chiras (2007, p. 17) indicated that biomass energy for example, has been used as an alternative for fossil fuels so as to conserve the environment. It is considered a greenhouse gas neutral since its combustion releases no more carbon dioxide than was absorbed during growth period of the organic material. Biomass fuel also contain little sulphur and low combustion temperatures. This limits the formation of nitrogen oxide which is a greenhouse gas dangerous to the environment (Abid et al 2009, p. 269). Responding to Climate Change The transport industry is driven mostly by petrol. This causes emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide combines with other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and cause global warming. In order to deal with this menace, there is need for countries to invest in energy efficient technologies like plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and new technologies such as hydrogen cars (Abid et al 2009, p. 297). This has the potential of reducing petroleum emissions of greenhouse gases into the air. Further, there is need to shift from air and truck transports to electric rail transport that reduces emissions significantly. Industries should shift from the fossil fuels to use of bio-fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel fuels should be used in the gasoline engines in the industrial economies. Abid et al (2009, p. 169) cited that electric vehicles can contribute into reduction of dangerous gases into the atmosphere especially if the energy is produced through the renewable energy sources. In order to deal with climate change and environmental crises associated with it, elimination of waste methane is required. Methane is considered to be one of the strongest greenhouse gases that are responsible for the climate change problems. Waste methane should thus be dealt with responsibly. This is through careful handling of oil wells, landfills, coal mines and the waste treatment plants (Chiras 2007, p. 17). This will provide a net greenhouse gas emission benefits. Biomass as a source of bio-energy can be used to capture carbon. Biomass traps carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through photosynthesis. When biomass is decomposed through combustion, carbon is released as carbon dioxide. This is the process involved in the carbon cycle. Biomass fuelled power plants result into a net-negative carbon dioxide emission. This implies that there will be less carbon in the atmosphere will be trapped through the technology and reduce greenhouse gases that are a threat to the environment (Abid et al 2009, p. 169). The adoption of renewable energy technologies is strategic in addressing the problems associated with climate change and global warming (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 113). From 1970s and 80s, development agencies have promoted small-scale renewable energy technologies. This includes the use of biogas, cooking stoves, the wind turbines and solar heaters in the industrializing countries. In the large scale developing countries have responded to climate change through the use of ethanol in the transport sector. This is especially the case in Brazil. In India, biogas is being used in households for lighting and cooking. Grid connected power in India and hydropower are being used in India and Nepal respectively as renewable sources of energy and safe energy for environmental conservation (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 119). Naturally Sustainable Renewable Energy As oil reservoirs and oil wells in the world run dry due to extensive exploitation and use in the energy sector, there is also an outcry in the environment that is caused by their consequences. Renewable energy sources include geothermal energy, solar, hydroelectric, biomass and wind energy (Chiras 2007, p. 233). These forms of energy have been considered to be the most environmental friendly because they dont produce high levels of greenhouse gases and other substances that are not environmentally friendly. The challenge that these forms of renewable energy have is sustainable use. Hydroelectric power uses the movement of falling water to run the turbines. Unlike other sources of energy, hydroelectricity does not depend on the fuels like natural gas or petrol to run the engines. This makes it more environmentally friendly. Besides, it is more sustainable with the sustainability of the environment so that water capacity of the dams is not interfered with. It uses the natural progression nature to generate electricity (Chiras 2007, p. 117). Hydroelectric power does not produce direct waste that pollutes the environment. It is thus considered to be environmentally sustainable (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 114). The carbon dioxide levels produced by hydroelectric power plants are considerably very low. This is however only produced during the construction stage of the plants and not in the operational phase of the plants making it environmentally friendly. As a renewable source of energy, hydroelectric power does not need the use of fuels to run the turbines. The use of petrol in the production of hydroelectric energy is not existent. This implies that when the price of the fossil fuels rises, the hydroelectric plants are often not affected. This makes it a sustainable and reliable source of energy when compared to other sources of energy (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 116). It also means that the consumer price of this form of renewable energy is fairly constant. In terms of sustainability, hydroelectric power stations last longer than the energy plant stations that are powered by fossil fuels. They are generally easy to maintain and pose no much threat to human life and property. Hydroelectric energy plants contribute to conservation of the environment. In the countries where great investments have been done in the hydropower such as Bhutan, environmental stewardship and custodianship is encouraged. Ehrfeld (2009, p. 119) cited that since it depends on water, a lot of forest conservation and reforestation is encouraged. This helps in the reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. The human activities that contribute environmental degradation are also reduced through investment in the hydroelectric power plants. Climate change is caused by human activities that tamper with the environment. However, when a country invests in the hydroelectric plants, environmental conservations efforts are boosted. With the conservation of the water catchment areas and the forests, hydroelectricity becomes a very sustainable and reliable source of renewable energy. As it produces clean energy through environmentally friendly approaches, it also helps in the protection of Mother Nature (Ehrfeld 2009, p.121). International Agreements and Government Interventions in Climate Change Various intervention efforts have been made at the community and individual levels to combat climate change and to reduce the negative effects of human activities on the environment. However, much is still needed to be done especially at the inter-state and governmental level. One of the efforts that the governments from the industrialized countries are making in the mitigating climate change is through the Kyoto Protocol. The focus of the protocol is in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions especially from the industrialized countries by 2012. The developed countries have the responsibility to reduce their emission of greenhouse gases from their large industries. These gases contribute to global warming and climate change. The Kyoto Protocol intervention targets reduction of carbon in the atmosphere (Karlsson, Lund, Mathiesen 2010, p. 488). This is through emission trading, clean development mechanism and the joint implementation. These strategies target reductions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The countries that are signatories are thus investing in renewable energy technology options in the industries. The UK government considers climate change as a priority. Its approaches include targeting households to help in energy saving and strengthen renewable energy adoption. Civil society, community and private organizations are also strengthened through grants to help in generation of renewable heat from the renewable sources (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 115). The industrialized countries are re-focusing investments towards generation of renewable energies that are environmentally friendly and are sustainable. There is thus need to encourage less use of fossil fuels and more investment in the bio-fuels. Improvement of energy efficiency is a good government strategy for dealing with the climate change problems. Reduced use of energy implies reduced production of carbon dioxide. Karlsson et al (2010 p. 501) cited that this calls for more efficient vehicles, motors, appliances and industrial processes. Besides, development of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, hydroelectricity, and biomass should be encouraged to reduce the consequences of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The transport sector should reduce gasoline consumption. The trucks, cars and buses use almost half of the oil in the United States. There is therefore urgent need for investment in electric and fuel-celled vehicles so as to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Transport policies should also encourage less driving of single-passenger vehicles in order to reduce greenhouse emissions (Ehrfeld 2009, p. 115). Human activities that involve land use are largely to blame for destruction of the environment. Governments should focus on developing agricultural policies that discourage environmentally hazardous practices and activities such deforestation and other human activities that are dangerous to the environment. Climate change has negatively impacted on food security. In order to therefore fight poverty, climate change must be addressed through agricultural activities and policies that are environmentally friendly (Kammen Casillas 2010, p. 1181-1182). Conclusion Climate change is greatly caused by human activities more than the natural processes. Industrialization and agricultural activities are largely responsible for the production of greenhouse gases that promote global warming and other consequences. These threaten wildlife and human existence and as such should be addressed. Renewable energy is the potential rescue of the environment from the negative effects of human activities. Governments and countries thus need to use less of fossil fuels and invest more in renewable energy technology options. These include hydropower, geothermal, wind energy and other reliable sources of environmentally friendly renewable energy sources.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Themes of Honor and Shame in Invisible Man Essay -- Ralph Ellison

EXECUTE SHAME GENTLY Invisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison, addressing many social and moral issues regarding African-American identity, including the inside of the interaction between the white and the black. His novel was written in a time, that black people were treated like degraded livings by the white in the Southern America and his main character is chosen from that region. In this figurative novel he meets many people during his trip to the North, where the black is allowed more freedom. As a character, he is not complex, he is even naà ¯ve. Yet, Ellison’s narration is successful enough to show that he improves as he makes radical decisions about his life at the end of the book. The nameless narrator is a young black person, who attends his college regularly. He follows certain directions to lead a normal life. Yet, his life has to diverge from what it is as he makes a huge mistake, which can not be forgiven by the Headmaster, Dr. Bledsoe. Mr. Norton, one of the trustees, is chauffeured by the narrator and in the trip they take together, the narrator shows him the places, where the real life that blacks have is obvious. Raged at this, Dr. Bledsoe’s reaction towards the naà ¯ve narrator is harsh and he is sent away from the college. The events have key points to them in terms of how the characters choose to behave under certain conditions. These conditions are mostly related to honor and shame, pride and humiliation, ambition to take over and passivity. Dr. Bledsoe is a black person and the Headmaster of the College. For the analysis of his character and his role, the understanding of the college should be complete and clear. It is an education institute, founded by white people in the name of educating the ... ...s this is not done, the actual shameful people are the white who tolerate it. They should feel shameless, helpless, defeated and flawed as they lower themselves for their benefit. Dr. Bledsoe’s ideas and thoughts and actions should be re-examined now that the white society is analyzed. He is not a man of honor in any case, in any definition but knowing what to do should be tolerated by the readers and he should not be accused of being a hypocrite just because of the sympathy we have for the narrator. The abstraction of â€Å"honor† and â€Å"shame† may often lead to different perspectives. Ralph Ellison’s novel helps us to discuss the themes of honor and shame by providing disputable subjects, emplaced in the complex issue of racism. Now is the time to turn into ourselves and look for the true and honorable self. Please execute the shameless part of you gently†¦

Sunday, November 10, 2019

First Day in School

It was the first day of the new school term 2012. The moment that I am looking forward for the past 2 months  during  school holiday finally arrived. Feeling ebullient, I said to myself â€Å"Yes!!! I am starting my Primary 3 today†. Waking up earlier than usual without my parents â€Å"wake-up† call, I rush to the toilet to have a quick shower and clean-up and straight proceed to the kitchen to have my breakfast. The bread spread with  a thin layer of butter which I occasionally have during school day is finally back!!! At 6:30am, my mum brought me downstairs to wait for the school bus. As usual the same group of 6 students plus my P2 classmate, Madhu is waiting eagerly for the bus to arrive. It has been our practise to queue up while waiting for the bus. It took us 10 minutes for the school bus to reach our beloved CHIJ Primary Toa Payoh school. Upon reaching the school, i am expecting to see new students who is starting their first day of Primary 1 in our school. I am in the look to see any parents who require any help for directions in our school and I am more happy to show them the way. This is my proud moment as I am representing the school and to my delight  the parents said â€Å"Thank You† to me!!! I proceed to Parade Square where the place for our assembly area. At the assembly area, I saw many type of faces. There were those who looked as nerd; some looked lethargic, seemed to be burning midnight oil, some looked excited to meet with their friends again cby chatting non-stop. We took our morning prayers and waiting anxiously for our beloved principal Ms Margaret Tan for her opening speech. The moment I am waiting for when Mrs Margaret Tan  call out and introduced all  Form Teacher names. I am really looking forward to meet my new teacher today which subsequently being announced as Ms Evelyn Chee. We are then asked to proceed to our class at level 2. Although it was the first day of school after two long months of holidays, the class was still clean. Itt was beyond of my expectation that the tables and chairs were free of dust. Perhaps the workers of the school were industrious and responsible!!! Good Morning everybody, I am your form teacher and you can call me Ms Chee† a slim and tall lady mooching in the class said. She looked kind and her look could allay my anxiety to be in the class. We are being updated with our P3 new timetable and also being reminded of the school rules and regulations. It's really a day full of excitement, meeting new and my former classmates and of course meeting my new teacher. I am definitely ready with the new challenge in Primar y 3 Ixora.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Leadership Behavior Research Paper Example

Leadership Behavior Research Paper Example Leadership Behavior Paper Leadership Behavior Paper The leadership style and behavior of Larry Ellison are as follow: Behavioral Approach: Larry Ellison behavior with its employees and subordinates are as follow; Ohio State Leadership Studies: 1 . Initiating structure: According to this study Larry Ellison shows behavior of Initiating structure because he always wants best talent and productivity. He wants to compete with Microsoft and required 100 % results from his employees. 2. Consideration: He shows little consideration toward it employees but when a project was successfully completed by his employees, he gave a high party to his employees on their achievement. Michigan Leadership studies: According to this theory Larry Ellison exhibits following behavior; 1 . Task-oriented Behavior: Larry Ellison is more task-oriented toward his employees than relations-oriented. He needs perfect work and sometime he became abused toward his employees, friends and foes when company decreases its productivity. 2. Relations-oriented behavior: Larry Ellison is little bit supportive and relation- oriented. But mostly he hired his own friends in the company so that he can easily work with them in a friendly environment. A Three-Dimensional Model: According to this model Larry Ellison show more Task-oriented, little Relations- Oriented and Change-oriented Behavior. Change-oriented behavior is that he always go for quickly adopting opportunities and theft the ideas of competitors and quickly transform his processes. Participation: Larry Ellison is Autocratic Leader. He transformed himself into a driven, disciplined warrior a self-styled New Age samurai, when his sales force sell future licenses to employees and failed to deliver them. Delegation: He gets back all authorities from its employees and become harsh leader when his ales force sell future licenses to employees and failed to deliver them. He delegates power only to his friend whom he hired in his company. Empowerment: Larry Ellison does not believe in empowering employees. He said if company wants to motivate employees it is needed to bring new human capital management tools rather than empowered employees. He said human capital is precious asset of company. Other theories and Behaviors Achievement-oriented Behavior: Mr Ellison focused on achievements, he always wants best results. Supportive: Mr Ellison always wanted things to be done the way he felt they should be done and mimed to always know how to respond and what action to take in almost every business-related decision. So even when a problem arose he always seem to know the proper action to take, demonstrating almost flawlessly situational theory. Situational Theory: The situational theory also plays a major role in Larry success. Situational theory is a leadership theory in which those in charge choose to adjust their leadership style to match a particular situation. Mr Ellison had a strong will that enabled his company to adapt quickly to the shifting markets demand and sudden competitive threats kicker than more structured organizations. After taking a big loss in the sasss, Oracle had to come up with some new changes and ideas. Mr Ellison approached this problem by creating a team of software specialist to come up with new projects. Leadership Member Exchange Theory their position through a series of exchange agreements with their members. Robert Miner and Edward Dates were a part of the In group of the organization, because they were two of the men who were closest to Mr Ellison. The book expresses Mr Ellison characteristics as of a cheerleader; by the way he builds an energetic environment that keeps employees on the Job until the products are completed. After the success of the projects, the inner groups are invited to very elegant, very expensive parties the other members, who werent as close to Mr Ellison, were all considered to be a part of the Out group. Power 1 . Legitimate Power: Larry Ellison is CEO of company so he has formal authority over work activities. 2. Reward Power: Larry only rewarded the brightest and most talented people of his organization. This sparked a strong competitive spirit within his organization. 3. Expert Power: Larry Ellison has full technical expertise in software development. 4. Information Power: Larry Ellison has complete information about its company and competitors. He is only weak in handling financial information of company. Influence Process: Instrumental Compliance: Larry Ellison influences his employees by giving direct rewards or punishment for required action. Outcome of Power and Influence Process: Power and Influence process of Larry Ellison is results in compliance in which he influenced the target persons behavior not their attitude. Larry was a charismatic, and has the ability to draw others to them. Transactional leadership: Transactional leadership focuses on the foundational management process of controlling, organizing, and short-term planning. This theory of leadership involves motivation, reward and punishment as the primary means of getting the follower to obey those in charge. Mr Ellison focused on objectives, roles of the organization and the performance of the employees on a daily basis. Mr Ellison was an authority compliant leader, who felt that the best way to be effective was to be directive to his employees, showing them exactly what he wanted. He also kept an open door policy f employees needed help on difficult projects to ensure that the products that they produced had little to no bugs in its systems. Conclusion: It is concluded that Larry Ellison is a man of mix characteristics he is both task- oriented and people-oriented. He sometimes used power of his money for his friends. He likes successful people including Bill Gates. He is an autocratic, transactional and charismatic leader. Outcomes of his behavior, power and influences include more compliance with little personalization.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Anthrax in America essays

Anthrax in America essays The greatest country in the world has been in a high state of alert for the past month and a half. People looking above in fear, and people looking around in suspicion. Then one day, a word went across the television that many did not know of, and many did not fear. A worthy opponent of the American way of life had appeared. One that would effect the mail system, cause more fear and panic, and danger the lives of innocent people. This evil foe is called Anthrax. In the past three weeks or so, everyone has been taking an extra glance at their mail before opening. The stories of innocent Americans opening their mail only to get a powdery cloud and to be infected with Anthrax has everyone trying their best to take care of themselves and their employees. CBS news, ABC news, and CNN are just a few corporations that have suspended incoming mail until they can further evaluate their mail systems (Noonan 38). In all the panic and fear, there is only one choice U.S. mail has, and that is to keep going. The entire nations mail cannot just stop. The anthrax problem would be solved, but bills would not be paid, orders would not be given, and important, possibly lifesaving, information would not be received. However, different branches have slowed down to ensure safety (Noonan 38). On television, you see all the big names telling us what they are doing to fight this scare, but the people who are really dealing with it, are those in the mailroom. A letter comes in saying, important. A young woman , only three weeks on the job, opens it only to get an infection to which has put her life in danger. (Noonan 38) However, is this an attack by the same terrorist to which attacked in mid-September? As more and more anthrax cases come up, more and more people point to Usama Bin Laden. If one really thinks on the subject, how difficult would it be to send letters with a false return address with a powder in the ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Canadian Shield Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Canadian Shield - Case Study Example Speaking of the person who is responsible for making the key decision concerning the company’s software, one should mention that at the present moment Seamus possesses a considerable amount of power in this area. On one hand, he is the head of the IS department; so, it is his call when it comes to implementation of new IT solutions. On the other hand, he has been focused on developing the in-house ISS that he is experiencing troubles with. In other words, at the present moment he is the expert on the new software that is being developed. Additionally, he has been conducting research on commercially available software and found that there is software out there that can be compared with the system that he has been working on. This means that he was able to collect a lot of knowledge about the current situation, and he has made a reasonable decision. However, it is quite understandable that such an important decision can hardly be put on the shoulders of a single person. Therefor e, the board of directors should make the call regarding the decision to move on with the custom software or switch to systems which were developed by other companies. Indeed, this is a rather important change that is likely to affect numerous people and there might be situations where its effect will not be positive. That is why the board of directors should weigh all the possibilities and choose the variant that suits the company best both in the short term and the long-term perspective. It is quite possible that Seamus’s decision can be biased.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Summary and reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Summary and reaction - Essay Example It also touches on the role that the relationship of parents plays in influencing the perception of the generation on marriage and parenting. This is particularly in relating the opinion of the Y generation on the importance of having a child grow up with parents to be happy despite having unmarried parents (Hanna 2). In our modern society, the concept of marriage among the populations has a wide variety of opinions this is concerning the importance attached to it and how many are willing to participate in a marriage. In this light, the Y generation, at 30 percent, put successful marriages as being of equal value as good parenting. This is as opposed to the value attached to marriage by the X generation which 35%, places a successful marriage at the same level as good parenting. These issues when put into perspective in the American population, reveal that about 40% of the American population believes that marriage is a potentially obsolete institution (Hanna 1). The said 40% marks a sharp increase in those who believed the same thing since the late 1970s, 1978 to be precise. Therefore, I believe that the sharp increase denotes the loss of confidence in the institution over the given span of time. However, the Y generation, also called millennials, bears mixed reactions and opinions towards the issue of marriage. This is concerning declaring marriage as a dead institution or even embracing it. This is because they do not embrace it openly, or rush to the altar as the researchers put it, and neither do they declare it dead. In addition, a large percentage of millennials asked about their appreciation for marriage expressed the desire to get married at one time. This is also expressed by young adults relating to the wide options they have concerning getting married. In this light, they regard marriage highly despite the open acceptance of the concept of having children outside wedlock (Hanna 2). The above issue

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Business Taxation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business Taxation - Essay Example However, before understanding this type of relief, it is needed to understand what exactly double taxation is. Double taxation is defined as a situation in which a company may need to pay two or more taxes for the same asset, financial transaction or its income. Generally the situation of double taxation arises due to the overlapping of tax laws and jurisdiction between different countries when there is a company or individual residing in one country while doing business in another country. The double taxation relief helps in allowing a company or the individual to get the tax reduction from any one of its linked country, may be it is the residing country or the profit gaining country. A group loss relief helps in allowing one company to surrender its current trading losses, excess management charges, and excess income charges to another company in the group. Here, the profits of the recipient company are set against the tax loss so that the surrendering company can get a payment on the basis of the tax saved. Again, it is common practice that a company or an individual residing in one country might want to make a taxable gain in terms or earnings and profits in another country. However, there is possibility that he need to pay tax on that gain locally as an obligation to the domestic, while at the same time, me may again need to pay tax in the country where he has made the gain. To provide companies and individuals relief from such types of bindings, many countries involved in bilateral double taxation agreements among themselves. These agreements are mainly of two types. In the first type, tax is needed to be paid by the individual or the company in its resident country only while exempting tax in the country where the gain arises. In the second case, the country in which the business gains receives the tax from the company, while the company in turn, receives a compensating tax credit in the residing country

Monday, October 28, 2019

Hasty Desicion Essay Example for Free

Hasty Desicion Essay Who falls in love after seeing each other for only one night. Romeo and Juliet has made some hasty decisions for those few days they were together. What do i mean about hasty decisions is like getting married and not never telling their parents knowing that they hate each other. Romeo killing Juliets cousin Tybalt during a little fight. And Romeo killing himself after hearing that Juliet fake her death. That is what i mean about hasty decisions. Romeo and Juliet were very young Juliet was fourteen years old and Romeo was sixteen or seventeen years old. Romeo and Juliet falls in love with each other as soon as they saw each other. It was at a dance. Romeo and Juliet families did not like each other for nothing in the world thats what makes it worst. How are you going to have a relationship with someone if the parents doesnt approve of it thats kind of miss up right. So they had a secret wedding that only the nurse and the preacher know about. Thats one the hasty decisions that were made in this story. In the story of Romeo and Juliet they make another hasty decision. Romeo kills Juliet cousin Tybalt . Romeo has made a very huge hasty decision right here by killing a family member. What makes it very bad is that the families a families already dont like each other and he go and kills his wife cousin. So they go and deliver the news to the families and Juliet family says that Romeo should die for doing a such thing. So now that Romeo has killed Tybalt is focus to move out the city or he will be killed. The last hasty decision that was made was that happen in the story is that Romeo has killed himself with some position . Romeo kills himself because he heard that Juliet killed herself. So now Romeo is gone and died somewhere else . Then they tell Juliet and she fake her death. So now that the truth commas out about them . The nurse ends up telling the families that they were married and had no other choices about but to just to get alone with each other choice but to like each other. In conclusion their were so much more hasty decision that were made. And i just chose to do those three to write my essay on how they made bad things like. Married without telling either of their parents knowing that they hate each other, Romeo killing juliets cousin Tybalt and almost getting himself killed, and Romeo and Juliet drinking a position to kill their self and that killed Romeo and they never said if it killed Juliet. But i think it did in my own opinion. That is my way of them trying to show their hasty decision. I wonder what would happen to me if i did any of these types of hasty decision that they had made.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Moments of Life Essay -- essays research papers

Moments of Life How does it seem to be that a natural man who has devoted his life to philosophy should be cheerful in the face of death? It seems that he is confident of finding the greatest blessing in the next world when his life is finished. Philosophy and religion have many differences pertaining to how you live your life and what happens to your soul when you die. Their ideas are so different, yet so alike. Living a philosophical life is to find the truth, to search for wisdom. The love and pursuit of wisdom is religious in a way. It is essential for the nurturing and growth of the soul as well as for the health and welfare of the state. "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Apology 38a). Socrates would rather die than give up philosophy. Philosophy is the practice for death and dying because it is the performance for separation from the body, in which a philosopher is trying to achieve the whole time, trying to separate your soul from the worldly desires. There is not a point in partaking of these worldly desires because they are never perfect. No matter how beautiful something is, it is never perfect, there is always something that could be changed to make it better. The separation of the body and soul is a philosopher’s wish being granted. The art of practicing philosophy can be devoted into one group: the progression and knowledge of the soul. Socrates was put in Athens in order to push people, to have them challenge their own souls knowledge. Socra...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

New Industries in the Caribbean Essay

Caribbean economies from their earliest periods of colonization were essentially agrarian based (during slavery). Economical activities included livestock farming and small farming done by the peasants. There were also trading and commerce which included the establishment of shops, inns and taverns. Large plantations were worked by a mass of slaves with the premier crop being Sugar Cane. When the colonizers first came to the West Indies they mainly grew crops such as coffee, cotton, ginger, banana and cocoa mainly for export. However during the second half of the 18th century, these crops lost their comparative advantage to sugar. When sugar experienced its depression the planters relaxed their stronghold over control of the land and some estate workers turned their attention to the peasant sector and other industries. NEW INDUSTRIES By the beginning of the twentieth century, the peasantry had begun to play a very important role in the diversification of the West Indian economies. The Royal Commissions before the Norman Commission, and the Norman Commissions had made recommendations for the development of the peasantry (Curtis: p 32). Many of the export crops recommended by the Norman Commission were already being cultivated by the peasantry. For these crops to have greater success, the peasantry would need capital for greater investment. But this capital was not forthcoming. This was due to the fact that they had limited capital, occupied small plots of land because they were charged a lot for these lands. Additionally the peasants cannot produce at subsistence level. The black peasantry in particularly faced a number of obstacles which included the increase in land prices, eviction from lands, refusal to subdivide and sell lands and also heavy taxations. The planters most of the times sold large pieces of lands for lower cost to the whites in comparison to the ex-slaves. Rice, which had been cultivated earlier as a subsistence crop in Guyana began to assume importance as a cash crop in the late nineteenth century. The abandonment of sugar cultivation on some estates made more land available, as did the opening up of riverain crown lands in 1898 on what for some were manageable terms of purchase. By 1900 government interest was being channeled through the board of agriculture ith conducted experiments in different rice varieties and supplied seed to the growers. A more objective was to develop a uniform grain size to reduce wastage in the milling process and by 1908 this had been substantially achieved. All of this stimulated further expansion so that, whereas in 1891 the land under rice amounted to only 4000 acres, there was a tenfold increase in the following two decades, and by 1917 for every ten acres planted in sugar, Guyana, eig ht acres were planted in rice. Expanding rice acreage was accompanied by the mushrooming of small mils. In 1914 there were 86 of them in existence. They were hardly elaborate structures but they were linked to the large mercantile firms in the capital and they controlled growers in the villages through a system of advances. Many of the millers, like many large rice growers were Indians who employed Indian labour, and the evidence suggests that ethnicity hardly guaranteed favourble treatment. In 1905 it was exporting to the Caribbean. Rice enjoyed considerable prosperity during the first war. In the inter-war period alternative sources of supply to the Caribbean market dried up and this provided the main basis for the steady expansion of the industry in Guyana. Guyana is by far the most important producer of rice in the Commonwealth Caribbean. There were about 20 thousand peasant farmers in 1952; by 1965 their numbers were believed to have more than doubled, reaching 45 thousand. There were 222 rice mills in 1960 and 199 in 1970. All were privately owned, except two which were owned and operated by the Rice Development Company. Bananas were first introduced into Jamaica in 1516. However the first exports took place in 1869 after the depression of sugar. As the industry flourished American companies came in to handle the trade as the peasants supplied bananas to a US [Boston] banana trader Lorenzo Dow Baker. Boston Fruit Company later formed to trade in Bananas with Caribbean and Central America which later became the United Fruit Company [UFCo]. By 1890 the value of Banana exports exceeded that of sugar and rum, and it retained this position except for a few years until the Second World War. By 1937 Jamaica provided twice as many stems as any other country in the world. It thus became a plantation crop-corporations and large entrepreneurs. Banana soon became the principal exports from Jamaica, and Windward Island. Trading partners also changed-Destination was now USA. During the war the industry declined because the ships could not be spared to transport the product. By the beginning of the nineteenth century coffee was also an important crop in Jamaica (The Banana production was done mainly by the Middle class mulattoes). During the depression sugar farmers in Trinidad turned their attention to cocoa which was the first major export of the island, and by 1900 it had become the major export once again. It retained this position until 1921 when Ghanaian cocoa began to swamp the world market. During that time too cocoa was also an important crop in St. Lucia, St. Kitts and St. Vincent. In the 1930’s citrus, which had been cultivated in the stricken cocoa areas became important. So too did Pineapples in the 19th century. Relatively small scale farmers earned cash for production of bananas, coffee, cocoa and pimento for exports. They also produced tubers, fruits and vegetables for domestic markets. A substantial part of small farming was for subsistence with relatively small surpluses for sale. Bauxite, tourism and urban-based manufacturing and services replaced export agriculture as the dominant sectors of the economy in the post-war era, as the British West Indies pursued a programme of â€Å"industrialization-by-invitation† The mineral resources which include bauxite, aluminum, gold et cetera have been developed by foreign capital and for the export market, to a much greater extent than the main agricultural products. In Guyana the American-owned Bauxite industry shipped its first load of ore in 1922. Expansion was steady throughout the inter-war period but it was not until the second war that bauxite became an important force in the economy. The Jamaican bauxite industry was developed by American companies after the second war. Demand for aluminum by the United States military and space programmes and by the automobile and other consumer goods industries created a lucrative market for bauxite and aluminum. As of such in 1957 Jamaica became the world’s leading bauxite producer and the main U. S. supplier. The U. S. dollar earnings from this new export financed the import of capital goods manufacturing industries that were set up to produce for the growing domestic and regional markets. The investment cycle of the multinational bauxite mining companies began topping offs as the decade of the 1960s drew to a close. Bauxite and aluminum thus replaced sugar and bananas as the leading export product after the Second World War. In 1964 Jamaican bauxite industry had over 800 registered manufacturing establishments including a cement factory, cigarette factories, breweries and bottling plants, extiles, clothing factories and plant producing soap, margarine and edible oil. In February 1967 an agreement was announced between the Jamaican government and an American metal-fabrication company to erect an aluminum plant in Jamaica. The petroleum industry in Trinidad and Tobago is the oldest mineral industry in the common-wealth Caribbean. The first successful well dates back to 1857 but it was not until the first decade of this century that the industry was established. By 1909 the country was exporting oil and by 1919 five refineries were in operation. The industry is largely owned and controlled by foreigners. The production of crude oil is mainly in the hands of four companies-Texaco, Shell, Trinidad Northern Area owned by Trinidad Tesoro, Shell and Texaco as equal partners. However by 1980 the government had purchased all foreign operations except Amoco. The tourist industry was developed after the Second World War, and this two is foreign owned and controlled. This industry is an offshoot of the banana and bauxite industry especially in Jamaica. The establishment and development of the tourist industry were facilitated by incentive legislation and special institutions. Jamaica passed the Hotels Aid Law, 1944, granting accelerated depreciation allowances and duty-free importation of materials for the construction and furnishing of hotels, and the Hotel Incentives Law, 1968, granting tax holidays and other concessions. The Hotel Aids Act passed in Barbados in 1967 allows duty free importation of building materials and equipment and grants a tax holiday of ten years. And all three territories set up Tourists Boards to promote and service the industry. As in the other generating sectors of the economies, there is a large proportion of foreign ownership in the tourist industry. In 1971 thirty-five per cent of the hotels in Jamaica were wholly foreign owned, 56 per cent wholly locally owned and 9 per cent joint ventures. Foreign ownership was more pronounced in Barbados. Foreigners owned 61 per cent of the capacity there: 33 per cent was owned by nationals of the United Kingdom. 16 per cent by Canadians and 12 per cent by Americans. Barbadians owned 34 per cent, and 5 per cent was jointly owned. Local ownership was dominant (80 per cent) among the smaller establishments which provided 25 per cent of the total capacity. Trade and commerce was also taking place in many places in the British West Indies as well. According to Beckles and Shepherd (1993) â€Å"export trade in the British Islands showed in a number of the units spectacular increases to the peak of prosperity between 1929 and 1940. † British Guiana traded with Europe and North America, commodities such as sugar cane, coffee and fruits. Trinidad exported petroleum products such as oil to places such as North America and the United Kingdom. Jamaica too traded tropical fruits, sugar cane, coffee, cocoa and other commodities with Europe and North America. In the late 1950s, Jamaica became the biggest supplier of bauxite to the United States. RACE: The Indians are concentrated mainly on the sugar estates while the Africans are concentrated in the villages and the towns. The Africans have always been more mobile geographically and socially and the chief supporters of the urbanization movement. They provide the overwhelming majority of the labour force in the bauxite industry and mining camps in the interior of Guyana, and the petroleum industry in Trinidad, and the bulk of the factory and service workers in both countries. Until the 1950s they occupied a somewhat monopolistic position in the white-collar and professional positions. The Indians supply the bulk of the field sugar workers and also the rice producers in Guyana. -Europeans owned most of the wealth-producing assets in the colonial economy. The indigenous Ihere, imported labour] populations were allowed to engage in small-scale peasant farming on the fringes of large white-owned plantations but mainly relegated to providing cheap labour for the white settlers in the expanding corporate economy. Where this posed problems, intermediary racial groups (Chinese, Indians, etc. ) were brought in to fill the gaps in labour supply. As export staples increased the wealth base of the colonial economy and as some diversification into minerals, tourism and manufacturing increased that wealth base further, commerce and services expanded. This opened up opportunities for small-scale capital and smaller entrepreneurial firms to operate alongside the large white-controlled corporations. (Thompson: p 244). In Jamaica, this intermediate minority group comprised immigrant â€Å"white ethnics† like the Lebanese and Jews (who joined a much older community of Jamaican Jews dating back to the period of colonization and settlement) and the Chinese, whose upper and middle echelons, occupying a â€Å"shopkeeper† niche, secured for the group the real and/or symbolic function of â€Å"social whites†. A racially mixed â€Å"brown middle class† also formed a component of this â€Å"minority, intermediary ethnic group†. The traditional white planter class was displaced both by foreign corporate capital, whose interests were concentrated on sugar, and later bauxite and tourism, and the intermediary ethnic groups with whom they eventually merged. The latter groups formed a domestic merchant and manufacturing sector alongside the transnational enclaves. A black rural middle class emerged on the basis of medium-sized holdings concentrating on export crops such as bananas, pimento, coffee and citrus. They comprised a tiny minority of the rural population, however, most of whom occupied a range between full-time peasants and full-time proletarians. The race related dualism of Caribbean economy was classically exhibited in the division between the (TNC or â€Å"Jamaica-white†-owned) plantation and (black) peasant economies of rural Jamaica. In 1938, this division was reflected in a tenure system which â€Å"concentrated over fifty per cent of agricultural land into some 800 holdings and left nearly 100,000 poor peasants and their families with twelve per cent of the land* (Post, 1981: 2-3). In addition, the black peasant economy was itself internally stratified, partly along the lines of the division between export production and domestic food crop production, which was itself related to size of holding. In addition, there were roughly 80,000 households at the lower margins of the peasantry with an average of a quarter of an acre each. .A significant bureaucratic and professional black middle class emerged, but Blacks failed to challenge the entrenched economic positions of the intermediary-ethnic elites. In the meantime, economic frustration and disfranchisement led large numbers of peasant and working class Blacks to participate in â€Å"a massive outward migration to Britain and a large-scale exodus from rural to urban areas, which translated rural poverty into urban ghettoes and urban poverty† (ibid. : 252). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, many ethnic elites from the BWI began migrating abroad. This â€Å"created unanticipated and unexpected new openings for black entry into the entrepreneurial class and facilitated large-scale entry of Blacks into the middle and upper levels of private sector management† (ibid: 254). Blacks became well established within the corporate managerial elite and gained a foothold in many sectors of the economy manufacturing, construction, business services, tourism, commerce and agriculture alongside the still dominant minority ethnic groups. Their enterprises tended to be smaller, but a few were large. Other developments were the growth of import-trade higglering, which represented an expansion and in some cases a very lucrative enhancement of a traditional female working class role. The big corporate sector enterprises in insurance, banking, distribution, manufacturing, hotels and services remained under the predominant ownership of the economically dominant minority Jews, Whites, Lebanese and Browns†. Indeed, migration of some of the less important families appears to have facilitated a consolidation and expansion of corporate ownership among the biggest capitalist families.