Monday, September 30, 2019

Describe the Terms and Conditions of Own Contract of Employment Essay

My contract of employment covers Job Location, as regards to where I am based in my employment. A job description, which describes the duties and responsibilities of my post. Continuous service, this is my start date for the company even if in a different role. Criminal records bureau checks, this just states that the post is subject to a CRB check. Probationary period, this confirms length of probationary period , what is expected of you within that period and also what happens at the end of the probationary period. Pay, This describes how much I will be paid, any enhancements, pay scale and possible pay rises dependant on gaining certain qualifications. Payroll procedures, this describes how I will be paid, how often and when i will be paid, pay slip information, about the company’s rights to make deductions if over paid or if you left and owed holiday/money for training or crb and about advising the company of any change in personal details. Hours, this is brief information on hours I am expected to do and break entitlements. Holidays, describes my holiday entitlement, how to book it and when the leave year commences and ends. Notice period, information on length of notice needed to terminate employment by myself or company. Training, states that you are required to attend mandatory training and about the possibilities of further training. Sickness arrangements, details the procedure to follow if you are ill and statutory sick pay entitlements. Confidentiality, explain the need for confidentiality due to sensitive nature of the business whilst in service and after leaving. Data protection, informs of the need for the company to hold personal information on you.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

What methods does Austen use to tell the story in Pride and Prejudice Chapter 43?

Jane Austen has started off chapter 43 using a telling method in a third person narrative to tell us the eyewitness of the story of what we as readers want to know, this is effective as Austen is describing the setting and the even that will take place later on in the chapter. The point of view in this chapter of Pride and Prejudice is omniscient; as story is told through Elizabeth, but as a third person. This chapter is a turning point of this novel as Elizabeth is starting to changer her views on Mr. Darcy as Austen says â€Å"there was certainly at this moment, in Elizabeth's mind, a more gentle sensation towards the original†. Elizabeth starts to change her feelings she had for Mr. Darcy after hearing Mrs. Reynolds praise so much about him describing him as â€Å"sweet tempered† and â€Å"generous hearted†. Furthermore, focalization is used throughout this chapter continuously as Elizabeth's point of view is being narrated; although Austen speaks she narrates it through Elizabeth's speeches and views. In this chapter when Elizabeth takes a trip to Pemberley, Austen tells the reader that her â€Å"spirits go into a high flutter† as soon as she sees a sight of it, this show the reader she had a little bit of excitement in her that she will be seeing Mr. Darcy. As in the previous chapter when Elizabeth turns down his proposal she now suddenly has a thought that â€Å"to be the mistress of Pemberley might be something† this shows the readers that Elizabeth point of view towards Darcy is starting to change slowly where as in the previous chapters she would never have thought of this idea, Austen showed the readers using a foreshadowing method in the previous chapters that Elizabeth later on in the novel at some point will change her feelings toward Darcy even if she doesn't completely like him. As Elizabeth and her aunt, uncle are driving into the Pemberley Park, Austen uses a lot of descriptive language to engage the readers by capturing their attention. Even though she had a lot in her mind, she still admired every second she saw while driving into the park as Austen using the telling method informs the readers that â€Å"Elizabeth was delighted. She had never seen a place for which nature had done more, or when natural beauty had been so little counteracted by an awkward taste.† the nature of it was complemented by art such as by the artificial landscaping. Here Jane Austen expresses the beauty of the grounds as â€Å"a beautiful wood† and â€Å"a large handsome stone building†. This automatically has an effect on Elizabeth's views. Although she was excited she still did not look forward to meeting its owner as Austen using a showing method informs the readers about Elizabeth's feelings. In this chapter Austen also uses contrast of the two parks that Elizabeth saw such as Lady Catherine's at Rosings which might be compared with Mr. Darcy as Austen says through Elizabeth's point of view â€Å"The rooms were lofty and handsome† and â€Å"Elizabeth saw, with admiration of his taste that is was neither gaudy nor uselessly fine, with less of splendour, and more real elegance, than the furniture of Rosings† contrast is effective in this chapter show the Austen describing the difference between two entities. The house and grounds of Darcy reflect his character and tastes. For a moment Elizabeth realises that she has some kind of regret that she rejected Darcy's proposal as she says â€Å"This was a lucky recollection – it had saved her from something like regret†. Austen has yet presented the readers with another evidence that Elizabeth's views were changing toward Darcy. As Mrs. Reynolds describes Darcy's character to Elizabeth, she realises that is completely different from what she had seen as Mrs. Reynolds says â€Å"I do not know is good enough for his good temper†. As soon as Mrs. Reynolds asks Elizabeth whether she thinks Darcy is handsome, she blushes and says â€Å"Yes, very handsome† Austen through showing method shows the readers that Elizabeth was blushing as soon as Mrs. Reynolds asked her a question about Darcy as she says â€Å"Elizabeth coloured† through third person narrative, this is effective because the readers get to see the overview of Elizabeth's feeling changing slowly. When Mrs. Reynolds describe Darcy as â€Å"sweet tempered† Elizabeth with shock questions herself saying â€Å"Can this be Mr. Darcy?† as se couldn't believe her ears, her firmest opinion of Mr. Darcy was quite the opposite one, and now she is only hearing good about him. Elizabeth becomes quite eager to hear more of Mr. Darcy as Austen informs the readers that her feelings are changing. Austen has also used different choice of punctuation as Elizabeth speech uses exclamation mark to show her strong feelings. Elizabeth now has realized that Mr. Darcy used to smile at her when their eyes met as Austen's informs the readers â€Å"as she remembered to have sometime seen, when he looked at her†, she used dramatic irony in Elizabeth's speech in chapter 6 when Elizabeth and charlotte talk about Jane as Elizabeth tells Charlotte that Mr. Bingley is simpleton not to discover Jane's affection where as she was almost describing her situation because she also missed out on Darcy's affection as she now realizes it. Elizabeth also questions herself making herself believe that â€Å"what praise is more valuable than a praise of an intelligent servant?† Austen tells the readers that her views on Darcy are being changed a lot as she is now starting to question herself of why she had so much prejudice toward him through a showing method, also the use of exclamation mark showing her strong feelings. As soon as Darcy comes and talks to Elizabeth, Austen through telling method informs the readers that she was starting to show affection toward him by being shy and blushing which is a symbol of love. She also started to care about what might have thought about her when they were talking whereas in the previous chapter she did not careless about his feelings as Austen says â€Å"whether he had felt more pain or pleasure seeing her†. She is very surprised to see that Darcy changed his manners for her sake as she tells Mrs. Gardiner â€Å"it cannot be for me, it cannot be for my sake that his manners are thus softened† Austen has used italic on personal pronouns to emphasize Elizabeth's feelings and views as she is very surprised to see Darcy changing his character for a lady who didn't tempt him when he saw her. When Darcy asks Elizabeth's permission to be introduced to his sister which is Miss Darcy, she feels honored as Austen through telling method informs the readers about this as she says â€Å"but she was flattered and pleased† she was so happy to hear such a complement from Mr. Darcy as it was of the highest kind. Elizabeth feels guilty for having prejudice towards Mr. Darcy however she doesn't say anything as she remains stays quite about that subject. Darcy has won her affection and Elizabeth has dropped her wrong views that she had also about him as Darcy spoke to her with â€Å"perfect civility† and with â€Å"civil enquiries†, she feels astonished by Darcy's altered behaviour just for her. Pride and Prejudice is a novel in which Jane Austen has used several techniques concerning the sense of place to create a fine novel of mannerisms, misjudgments, and mayhem. Austen's choice of word moved Elizabeth's feelings towards Darcy in a way that whatever he did and said to her she admired it. Through a dialogue of Mrs. Reynolds and Elizabeth's aunt and uncle, Austen introduces Darcy's real characteristics to the readers. There is also use of archaic language in this chapter for example when Austen uses the term â€Å"adieu† and â€Å"vexation† to show the readers the time period it was set in as well as wanting us to see the aspect of life.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Maintaining a Healthy Home Holistically

Martina Westcott Hsoc 259 April 21, 2010 Maintaining a Healthy Home Holistically: Natural Household Products as Safe Alternatives to Conventional Products â€Å"If you want to learn about the health of a population, look at the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the places where they live. † -Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, 5th Century BC Natural household products are an important part of maintaining health holistically. From day to day, what is ingested, inhaled, and introduced into our bodies has effects on levels of function and the state of our health.We spend up to 57 percent of our lives indoors, so it is beneficial to make sure that indoor environments are safe havens to raise healthy children. [1] High levels of exposure to harmful fumes and aromas produced by conventional cleaning products play a role in increasing rates of asthma, especially in young children. Conventional cleaning products contain harsh chemicals that are irritating to both the skin and b ody. Asthma cannot be cured, but by removing triggers in the home, this condition can be treated and patients can rely less on biomedicine to control symptoms.Two main symptom aggravators for asthmatic patients are bioallergens and chemical irritants. [2] Natural cleaning products can be helpful in removing both from the home. By removing allergens and synthetic chemicals from the home environment, good health is maintained. Perspectives taken from current consumers of natural cleaning products reveal an understanding of the environment as a point of access to a wealth of resources that can serve to alleviate symptoms and enhance one’s quality of life. The efficacy of these products is revealed in personal accounts.Moreso today than ever before, it is crucial to regard the body as a precious vessel and treat it as such. In doing so, some are beginning to relate to the environment in a new way, valuing responsibility to the environment as much as responsibility for their own b odies. By engaging in a reciprocal relationship with the environment, humans live in harmony with their surroundings and preserve nature’s healing powers. Melaleuca, Inc, the Shaklee Corporation, and the Rainbow Company are three institutions that pledge to protect the health of consumers and our environment through increasing accessibility to natural cleaning products.What are Natural Household Products? Natural cleaning products contain components from the earth as primary constituents, such as oils, herbs, or naturally- occurring chemical compounds. These products do not harm the environment and do not introduce foreign chemicals into the body. Therefore, natural cleaning products are typically non- irritating to the skin and eyes and far more gentle than harsh chemical cleansers. In the context of this paper, just because something is ‘natural’ doesn’t mean it is less toxic, or non- irritating all the time.Even cleaners that are safe enough to eat, lik e lemon juice, can be irritating to the eyes or skin. Consumers should make decisions based on reading the ingredient list for themselves, identifying any ingredients that may be toxic, and then deciding whether to use that product in the home. There are several labels approved by the FDA that one can use to identify whether or not a product is organic, or in other words, natural. If a product is labeled â€Å"100% organic† all of the ingredients used must be natural.If a product is labeled simply â€Å"organic,† it at least 95 percent of its ingredients are organically produced. Finally, if a product is labeled â€Å"made with organic ingredients,† it must contain at least 70 percent organic contents. The first ingredient on any label is found in the product in greatest quantity, therefore it may be convenient to simply identify this ingredient. Many products are mostly water. Therefore, the first ingredient can provide a clue to the potency of the natural ingr edient within the product of your choice. 3] Not all natural cleaning products are equal. Like all products used in the home, especially around children, it is necessary to research ingredients or subscribe to a company that pledges to provide pure products. For instance, the Melaleuca Company adheres to the established Australian standard that requires marketed Melaleuca oil to have a minimum of thirty- five percent Terpinen and a maximum of ten- percent Cineole, the two main chemical components of the natural oil, which ensures that the product is as pure as possible. [4] The Shaklee Corporation, another ompany that promotes natural products, maintains a Scientific Advisory Board of medical professionals and scientists who regularly check the purity of products and make sure EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) standards are met. [5] These are features of companies that have created transparency for consumers to identify exactly where their products are coming from and can be tru sted to provide pure products for the home. Why Worry About the Environment? Do you know what impacts the quality of your health? [pic] www. ahha. org We are our environment.Health does not end at the skin. Everything we do, from the food we eat to the air we breathe, affects our health. In this diagram produced by the American Holistic Health Association, the environment is shown to impact health in an even stronger capacity than medical care. While one may visit the doctor’s office once or twice annually, we spend countless hours indoors in the course of our lives. Therefore the quality of the environment cannot be separated from one’s state of health. Natural household products holistically maintain health because they do not harm the environment.Unnatural, genetically engineered chemicals used in the environment have been shown to harm the body. In a study conducted at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, evidence was found linking organochlorine exposure and thyroid disease in women. Organochlorine is an insecticide used in planting. The study compared female farmers in Iowa and North Carolina who had been exposed to the compound on a regular basis to those who were not in regular contact with the chemical. Analysis of results showed that â€Å"there was an increased odds of hypothyroidism with use of organochlorine insecticides of 12. %†[6] This study reveals the bodily harm that can be incurred just by touching chemically altered compounds and using them on a daily basis. This is not to mention the potential dangers of ingesting these chemicals in food products. As we keep the environment pure, we also keep our bodies pure. In indigenous cultures, all products used in the home came directly from the earth itself. Indigenous Perspectives of Holism Using natural cleaning products parallels the use of holistic healthcare. Indigenous peoples believed that human beings are one with the earth, and this assertion is found in all form s of Shamanistic practice.Each of us is deeply connected with the Earth’s ecosystems. In a book entitled Ecological Medicine: Healing the Earth, Healing Ourselves the author writes, â€Å"By restoring the earth, we restore ourselves†[7] Biologically, the human body is composed of the same elements that constitute the land like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. When we die, our bodies return to the earth and begin the cycle of life anew. The Bible reads, â€Å"Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return. †[8] Human life comprises just one small portion of the cycle of life.Cultures that participated in Shamanistic traditions like the Native Americans, for instance, understood this cycle of life. The notion of using the most valuable herbs the earth has to offer in personal care regimens is not one of recent invention. Native Americans have used plants and herbs grown by hand for anywhere between 10,000 and 30,000 years. [9] The spiritual understanding of a life cy cle that the earth is intimately connected to human beings is the underlying basis for providing optimal care and respect for the land, which will ultimately offer up a harvest to care for the individual in turn.Such an understanding â€Å"is awareness that life in any environment is viable only when humans view the life that surrounds them as kin. †[10] This phenomenon, which professor of Anthropology Enrique Salmon calls â€Å"ecological kinship† is a unique feature of Native American culture and other Shamanistic belief systems that has produced a deep appreciation for the land, one that the Melaleuca Company echoes in promotion of natural products that do not harm the earth upon disposal as some harsh chemicals may.Native Americans have traditionally â€Å"viewed human beings not as some higher intellectual being above lower animal and inanimate beings but as a kindred partner in the universe, reliant on the other beings in creation for life itself. †[11] Th is fundamental interdependence is necessary to an understanding of holistic healthcare as more than care for the body, but also care for the environment, which can be considered the temple that houses our bodies. Other Native American groups have similar understandings of the cyclic nature of life and death as it relates to the environment.In Cherokee culture, the medicine wheel, which symbolizes the â€Å"wheel of life†[12] represents a series of stages through which living beings pass associated with seasons and the alignment of the cosmos. The wheel does not have to be tangible; it can be spiritually understood as present during ceremonial rituals. The term â€Å"medicine† wheel may be understood in American culture if biomedicine is the immediate connection one identifies because the concept is quite spiritual in Native culture. The medicine wheel is a healing cycle that includes the environment as a source of healing and strength. As Dr.Tieraona Low Dog puts it el oquently, â€Å"plants aren’t pills, they’re seeds. †[13] In indigenous cultures, plants have intrinsic healing properties simply from being alive. These healing powers are all- natural and unaltered by man, preserved only in the purity of nature. This is true in all indigenous belief systems. For Native Americans and other indigenous groups, health is a balance between human outputs and inputs and those of the physical body of land. It is an alignment that is achieved through respect for the earth, an absence of exploitation in terms of resource extraction, and an embracing of nature.In a physical sense, balance is achieved by respecting the land. In a spiritual sense, balance is achieved by using the wheel symbolically in ceremonial practices and rituals to align oneself with climate patterns, deities, etc. For instance, in certain Cherokee ceremonies, tribes march around a central fire in a counter- clockwise direction because this is believed to be pleasing to the divine. According to Jutlia Atli, a member of the Cherokee tribe, â€Å"We are created by, balanced between, and destroyed by the primary forces represented on the Wheel. [14] The wheel includes seven sacred directions which correspond to environmental elements and seasons as well as colors and times of day. The seven directions are also representative of various characters, such as humility, change, death, and impermanence. These examples demonstrate the creation and existence of the human being as only a small part of an extensive universal system of life that is all inclusive, a substratum of physical and spiritual interconnection that strings together all beings as one. This holistic view of life is one that we can reclaim today.Like a flickering flame, human life is only a brief glimpse of the extensive life present on the earth at any given point in time, a humbling acceptance that can truly change one’s perspective. Natural Medicine Indigenous peoples used what was available to them in their immediate environments, typically herbs, roots, or seeds that grew from the soil, in healing. These natural elements were the body’s first medicines. Modern pharmaceuticals introduce chemicals that have often been genetically engineered in the laboratory into our bodies.When the body does not recognize a drug, the immune system is designed to combat that foreign substance. Prescriptions cannot simply target one symptom because the body is a set of extensive systems that work in harmony to maintain homeostasis. Any pill ingested must travel through the entire system and could potentially harm organs or tissues that were not the intended target of the treatment. Therefore, it is better to use natural treatments that are not so unfamiliar to the body to maintain good health.Holistic practitioners like those who practice homeopathy utilize naturally occurring remedies to restore health such as herbs. A homeopathic physician, Dr. Linda Baker utilize s natural herbs every day in her practice and also maintains an allergen- free, chemical- free environment in her office for patients. [15] Her concern for creating a natural setting for her homeopathic practice speaks to recreating the natural environment indoors to maintain health holistically. She subscribes to the Shaklee Corporation, a company that produces natural products for the home and office.Natural Household Products Today: Drawing on the Past to Protect Our Future Three major companies involved in producing natural cleaning products for sale presently are the Shaklee Corporation, the Rainbow Company, and Melaleuca Inc. A brief overview of the services offered by these companies will provide insight into the transforming views of how to maintain a healthy home environment. All companies promoting natural cleaning products share the same basic goal, and that is promoting health holistically by offering alternatives to harsh chemicals that can harm the body and the environ ment.These companies look to indigenous cultures for philosophy and ingredients. The Shaklee Corporation has been operating since 1960. It is one of the pioneer companies to promote natural cleaning products and biodegradable containers for household products. Their mission statement nicely sums some of the ideas presented in this paper. This is the Shaklee pledge: â€Å"We make products from the purest natural ingredients. And we take stringent measures to keep out pesticides, contaminants, and other unnatural things that simply don't belong there.But just as important as what we take from nature is what we don't take. †[16] Shaklee set the standard for many similar companies that would follow. Melaleuca, Inc. was founded by Frank VanderSloot in 1995. The overarching goals of the company are to provide consumers with natural alternatives to chemically based cleaning products, healing supplements, medications, and even beauty products. By working in concert with the environme nt, the Melaleuca Company has brought to the forefront natural remedies that have been used for centuries in other cultures.For instance, the pioneer product and namesake of this innovative company was melaleuca oil, also known as tea tree oil. This oil is a natural compound taken from an Australian plant which is considered â€Å"a useful dermatological with antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. †[17] Tea tree oil is used in a wide range of products sold by the company, including toothpaste, mouthwash, soap, as well as its most basic form as pure oil. Tea tree oil was used among Australian aborigines who realized the healing power of the extract upon experimentation.Within that culture, â€Å"freshly crushed leaves were applied directly to an injury, and then held in place with a mud pack†[18] and healing was accelerated. They named the herb bungawalbyn, which means â€Å"healing ground† in the native language. [19] Today, tea tree oil is used to treat conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, and athlete’s foot. It is found within a whole host of natural cleaning products, from teas to acne medications. This company is one of many that have successfully brought this ancient herb back to the forefront of health consciousness and natural remedies for common ailments.The Melaleuca Company functions through word- of- mouth dissemination of consumer based advice and success with products. One of the company’s slogans, â€Å"We’re telling about Melaleuca, not selling it†[20] speaks to this feature of promoting the products. Customers are exposed to Melaleuca through informational sessions held within the homes of current users who are given instructional materials to conduct the sessions themselves with other friends. As a wellness company, the Melaleuca brand promotes a holistic focus on the entire individual’s overall wellbeing and daily satisfaction with bodily function.Testimonies shared during informational sessions are typically centered on personal experience with the product, from health improvements seen after using natural cleaning products as in the case of Ms. Hensen, to the practical efficacy of maintaining a healthy lifestyle without harming the environment. While Melaleuca promotes a whole host of natural products, from lotions to cleaners, other companies focus on improving the efficacy and the environmentally- friendly standard of a particular household appliance such as the vacuum.The Rainbow Cleaning System line produces vacuum cleaners that use a water filtration system to collect dirt and allergens picked up instead of traditional bags that can harbor a host of dust mites and other bacteria lifted from carpets during vacuuming. The idea of cleaning one’s home is the goal to remove dirt, but some conventional vacuum cleaners only spread dirt and dust mites as one empties filters and bags. Rainbow technology uses a water basin to trap al lergens in a fluid that can be easily disposed in the proper receptacle, either bagged and thrown in the trash or flushed down the toilet.The innovative system also allows customers to add natural components to the water basin prior to vacuuming, such as lemon or orange peels, to fragrance the home naturally as you vacuum. This pragmatic system can be helpful for those who are sensitive to dust and other irritants, especially asthmatic children and adults. Conventional Household Products Pollute the Body Asthma is a condition that affects a large portion of the U. S. population and it is especially prevalent among young children. An average of one out of every 13 school-aged children or nine million US children under age 18 have been diagnosed with asthma. It’s the most common chronic childhood disease in the developed world and has become even more commonplace in the last three decades. †[21] Furthermore, in the US, the prevalence of asthma increased 75% from 1980-1994 . [22] An increasingly toxic home environment may play a key role in the development of asthma and the severity of symptoms.A 2004 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine revealed the harmful effects of environmental irritants in amplifying asthma- related symptoms. The study, which followed 937 children living in high- risk homes in seven major cities, found that a reduction of irritants within the home served to decrease asthma- related morbidity rates. [23] Children who were exposed to fewer allergens within the home through stringent cleaning practices experienced less symptoms of asthma including wheezing and coughing. They could also play for more extended periods of time because their symptoms were alleviated.This study reveals the fundamental connection between health and environment, one that companies promoting natural cleaning products hope to make prominent in American consumer culture. The Melaleuca Company promotes maintaining a healthy home. In a chapte r of the Melaleuca Wellness Guide entitled â€Å"Is Your Home a Healthy Home? † John K. Beaulieu exposes the harms that can be unwittingly imposed on one’s family through the use of toxic chemicals in household products. Some alarming statistics are presented as evidence of these harms.For instance, â€Å"a product that kills 50% of lab animals through ingestion or inhalation can still receive the federal regulatory designation ‘non-toxic’†[24] Throughout the article, a number of products used in almost every household in the United States are listed as containing cancer-causing agents and chemicals that can irritate respiratory pathways or skin. One chemical that is common in many household products, formaldehyde, which is also used to preserve human and animal bodies for dissection, is described as capable of causing â€Å"spasms, edema of the larynx and bronchi, and chemical pneumonitis†[25] upon inhalation.Formaldehyde is found in common brands of bubble bath, baby shampoo, hair spray, and other personal care products and, like dust and allergens, has also been linked to childhood asthma. In an article published in the Environmental Health Perspectives Journal entitled â€Å"Formaldehyde Exposure and Asthma in Children: A Systematic Review,† literature reviews of recently published studies provided quantitative evidence of a strong association between formaldehyde in the home environment and increasing rates of asthma among children.Specifically, â€Å"when compared with individuals with no formaldehyde exposure, those with the highest levels of exposure reported in the seven studies (i. e. , 80  µg/m3) would have 3. 5-times higher odds of asthma. †[26] One study examined in this report focused on formaldehyde exposure among infants from birth to two years of age, a critical window where exposure to formaldehyde can have long- lasting effects due to the â€Å"small caliber of their airways†[27 ] and found an even stronger positive association with asthma for these children later in life.Therefore, it is imperative that families keep their homes pure in terms of products used to clean furniture and floors, especially in children’s rooms. Some links to chemical and asthma remain unclear. For instance, a study in Sweden identified yet another harmful agent found in many household items, phthalate compounds. Phthalates are compounds that are used in conventional tupper- ware plastic containers as well as moisturizers, nail polish, and vinyl flooring. These compounds are ubiquitous in most American homes as well and leach out of products into the air. â€Å"Global phthalate production is 3. million tons per year†[28] and this figure is rising every year. The Swedish study concluded that â€Å"house dust containing [phthalates]†¦is associated with higher rates of asthma. †[29] The study included Swedish children who were exposed to phthalate- containin g products in the home. However, a reverse causation factor has been considered by the American Chemistry Council, which suggests that it is yet to be determined whether the presence of the phthalate compounds ultimately leads to asthma or if the phthalate-containing products brought into the home to combat asthma only further aggravate symptoms.Both situations may be contributing factors to worsening symptoms. The example used is the practice of replacing carpets with vinyl flooring to reduce allergens, which is often a response to asthma because parents are aware of the dust mites carpeting can harbor within the home. Perhaps the Rainbow Cleaning System would work well for these families! Although this particular connection remains unclear, other chemical compounds like formaldehyde have been linked to asthma with high levels of certainty.The preventive benefits of using natural cleaning systems in the home prevail. Evidence suggests that conventional cleaning products cause illne ss; this is especially important for children. During the interview, Ms. Hensen discussed the health benefits of using natural household products within her own family in depth. With regard to the benefits of using Melaleuca products, she asserted wholeheartedly that her â€Å"family’s health had improved greatly since the introduction of Melaleuca cleaning products and supplements to the household. Her teenage son has suffered with severe asthma since birth and his condition was often aggravated by strongly scented detergents and other harsh chemical products, including household bleach and ammonia- based cleaners. She revealed that he had missed almost two months of school over the course of his freshman year of high school due to asthma complications despite her best efforts to keep the house clear of irritants like dust and pesticides. When a friend suggested Melaleuca, Ms. Hensen was eager to explore the option.Her first product was MelaPower ©, a melaleuca oil- based detergent. Within weeks, she found that her son was not experiencing the same sense of airway irritation as he had with other brands of detergent. She then added Sol-U-Mel ©, a multi-use cleaning solution that she uses throughout the home in cleaning floors, appliances, and large areas such as kitchen and living room floors. These products are part of the EcoSense line of natural cleaning products. Because Sol-U-Mel © solution is sold in concentrated form, it is long- lasting through several uses.She especially enjoys the versatility of uses for one product she has encountered using Melaleuca. Sol- U- Mel © is just one example of such products that can be used almost anywhere in the home. Her son has not had an asthma attack since she switched to Melaleuca products eight years ago. Now a law school student at Temple University, he uses the products in his own home. When asked how he feels since his mom first introduced him to Melaleuca products, he responds that â€Å"Melale uca changed his life. † He attributes his renewed ease of breathing to Melaleuca in large part. Ms.Hensen’s personal testimony does not suggest that Melaleuca products are â€Å"miracle solutions† to a whole host of health problems, but it does reveal the efficacy that consumers seek when deciding on a purchase. Her experience reveals a vital tenet of natural, holistic healthcare methods, which is, â€Å"In the wisdom of nature lies the solutions† to all of the ailments faced by humankind today. [30] We are not at a loss for natural cures because the environment has just as many rich resources for promoting health as it always has. It is simply our responsibility to take advantage of those resources.Using natural cleaning products is the first step for many families, especially among those who are aware of the potential dangers of conventional products. One example is antiperspirant, a widely used product in almost every American home. Many antiperspirants contain aluminum, a chemical element that has been linked to breast cancer in several studies. While there is no general consensus on the long- term effects of antiperspirant use, several studies have shown a positive association between regular application and tumors in the breast.One such study was conducted in 2002, entitled â€Å"Aluminum, Antiperspirants, and Breast Cancer. † The study reveals the toxicity of the element and its possible interactions with breast tissue over long- term exposure: â€Å"Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells†[31] While the connection between aluminum and breast cancer remains highly debated and continues to draw researchers, there are several chemicals that have been notably proven harmful to the body.The long- term effects of using chemical elements lik e aluminum, phthalates, and formaldehyde have been well- documented. However, a recent study by Ramon et al. identifies the short- term effects of constant exposure to conventional cleaning products in the hospitality industry among female housekeepers. [32] In the study, a control group of 43 domestic workers who had been diagnosed with either asthma or obstructive lung disease were instructed to keep diaries of symptoms associated with their conditions, from difficulty breathing to asthma attacks at different points during the day.The workers recorded the severity of seven symptoms that had been selected by the panel of researchers at different points during the day. The study concluded that exposure to traditional cleaning products, among them bleach- containing products, aggravates lower respiratory tract symptoms among domestic workers. Although this study was conducted in Spain where the pool of participants was localized, these results indicate that conventional cleaning prod ucts are not only damaging to the health of children but also to adults. Harsh irritants found in traditional cleaning products like bleach are dangerous to both the body and the environment.Conventional Household Products Pollute the Environment Humans are only as healthy as their habitats. Therefore, by polluting the environment, we poison ourselves. Conventional cleaning products pollute the environment and our bodies. By poisoning the environment, we poison ourselves. Environmental security, which can be understood as the capacity of humans to live harmoniously with nature or to maintain a sustainable environment is inextricably linked with human security. This is why it is crucial to make careful decisions about the purity of household products.In an interview with Jim Quigley, founder of Healthy Spaces, a company that aims to help local Philadelphia and Bucks County families create healthier homes and workplaces, the interconnection between environmental health and bodily func tion was made clear. He described an incident in which a man with severe allergies called in to have an evaluation of his work space hoping to identify a major environmental trigger that could be removed to ease his symptoms. He had been taking Claritin every day, three times per day on his worst days, and was very distracted by his allergy symptoms.Jim went into evaluate the office and made shocking observations as he engaged in conversation with the man and completed the formal checklist he uses in every evaluation. The first visual observation was an easy one. He immediately identified wall-to-wall carpeting in the office that had not been vacuumed in a number of months, a rich source of dust mites and bacteria. The second was the wall paper, which he determined contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) upon taking a sample and evaluating it in the laboratory. Both formaldehyde, the dangers of which have been discussed, and xylene were found in the wallpaper.The man was functio ning from day to day in a very hazardous environment, and Jim advised him to remove the carpet, remove the wallpaper, and use paint with a natural base to see if his health improved. In a matter of days, the man’s symptoms were alleviated to the point of no longer needing even one dose of Claritin in the course of a day. By returning the office environment to a more natural state, he was able to return his body to a more natural state of functioning as well by coming off of his pharmaceutical medication.Several companies are making a healthy environment a priority in their marketing strategies. [33] Melaleuca Inc. is an example of one company that is making strides to protect the environment. The biodegradable nature of most Melaleuca products and containers ensures that the environment will not be harmed through proper disposal. This is one of the extra steps the brand makes to protect the natural habitat in which we all must live, which adds sustainable value to the product s.Because the products in Melaleuca’s cleaning line Eco Sense are concentrated, they can be diluted with water instead of packed with chemical fillers to enhance performance. Also, the concentrated nature of the products allows packaging in smaller containers, which allows for less waste. This is a feature that customers like Ms. Hensen truly appreciate. She asserts that she is personally committed to preserving the environment and this was one of the main features that first drew her to the company. In her own words, she is â€Å"really concerned with protecting the environment in any way [she] can. [34] The commitment to preserving the environment is a part of the Melaleuca promise because the founders understand that the earth provides benefits that require a sense of respect for the environment, a mutually beneficial partnership between consumers and this universal habitat. All companies providing natural household products make a similar pledge to protecting the environ ment. Natural Household Products: The Best Choice for Your Home and Health Natural cleaning products provide safe alternatives to harmful chemicals found in many traditional products, from bleach to furniture polish.Considering that we spend up to 57 percent of our lives indoors, it is beneficial to make sure that indoor environments are safe havens to raise healthy children. At present, many environmental factors are responsible for the increase in the number of allergic and autoimmune diseases, and evidence provided supports the hypothesis that this increase may be caused by the widespread chemical contamination of the environment. Several chemicals, like formaldehyde and phthalates in the home have been linked to rising rates of asthma among young people, but consumers are not left hopeless. The goal is not to live in fear of the world around us.Rather, it is to embrace the fruits of the earth and bring nature into the home environment. Bacteria and dust mites were some of the fi rst organisms to appear on the planet, and these tiny organisms will not be disappearing anytime soon. All companies promoting natural cleaning products share the same basic goal, and that is promoting health holistically by offering alternatives to harsh chemicals that can harm the body and the environment. Perhaps the reemergence of indigenous practices is evidence that we are beginning to remember that we are just one part of an unending cycle of life- we are nature.Therefore, the environments we occupy are inseparable from our own holistic wellbeing. Just as some are choosing natural products for healing rather than pharmaceuticals to stimulate the body’s own innate ability to heal, people are looking for more natural products to surround themselves in the home. If the body is a temple of the soul, then the home is the temple of the body, and the environment encapsulates it all. There are no divisions among these components. The earth’s natural elements have worked synergistically with our own bodily systems for thousands of years. Isn’t that the best seal of approval?

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Environment of Tombow Pencil Company Essay

Business Environment of Tombow Pencil Company - Essay Example The firm that is analyzed in the paper is Tombow Pencil Company Ltd is based in Japan and is headquartered in Tokyo. The company was well known throughout Japan for its products that were carefully designed to win the market share as well as to improve the profit margins. Whilst business has been steadily growing, it can be noted that the changing environment has somehow affected the operations of Tombow. The strategy implemented by the organisation could not be fully sustained in the long run and this has prompted the leadership to seek changes in the structure of the organisation as well as its operations. The business environment in which organizations operate during the contemporary period is characterised by changes such as technological innovations, competition as well as the ever-changing needs of the consumers. In the given case of Tombow, it can be seen that its operations have been adversely affected by changes in the environment such as competition as well as improvements in the distribution channels of different pencil products offered. Such changes in the business environment have affected Tombow in different ways but the major notable effect is that of declining profits that can be attributed to these changes taking place in the business environment. As such, Roussow (1) posits to the effect that the organisation’s success in this competitive and dynamic environment mainly depends on its capacity to develop, implement, monitor as well as evaluate its business strategy such as knowledge management. The main problem bedevilling Tombow Company Ltd is related to several functional departments. There are many players involved in the supply chain where sales agents as well as wholesalers have been used in the distribution process. The other problem is related to innovations in the distribution channels that have challenged traditional ways of doing business by this organisation. This has resulted in late deliveries of the products. This has also led to piling of different products pending delivery and meeting the expectations of the customers is still a challenge for this particular company owing to changes taking place in the business environment where it is operating. Whilst it can be seen that there are many players involved in the production as well as distribution process, it seems that there is lack of adequate networking among the players involved. Dyer & Nobeoka (2) suggest that networking between the production as well as supply chain of the organisation is very important in as far as knowledge creation is concerned. These authors suggest that learning in an organisation is very important for its success and it can only be achieved through networking of vital organs, which can promote institutionalisation, as well as flow of knowledge within it. A good example can be drawn from the automobile industry especially the case of Toyota which achieved its competitive advantage through networking its production as well as supply chain which promoted sharing of knowledge among vital stakeholders involved in its operations. Basically, learning in an organisation which promotes the creation as well as sharing of knowledge is often seen as the locus for organisational development especially in the ever changing business environment in which organisations operate. Bilateral knowledge sharing between the organisation and its suppliers is very important given that there will be high chances of achieving the goal of the organisation since mutual understanding among the vital networks would be promoted. Continuous learning as well as knowledge creation and sharing are seen as very important components that can lead an organisation to gain a competitive advantage over its rival competitors. The network system is very effective in transferring knowledge from one point to the other within an organisation, which is essential for its long term growth and development. Any organization that is concerned about its g rowth ought to harness on the strategy of organisational learning. Over and above, it can be noted that organizations operate in a

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Decisions in Paradise Business Scenario, Part 1 Essay

Decisions in Paradise Business Scenario, Part 1 - Essay Example So, in this paper, I as part of ARS Corp will focus on the challenges or problems, which could impede our company’s initiative in Kava. ARS’ initiative After tentatively analyzing the business opportunities in Kava, ARS group wants to initiate the setting up a Business School. ARS’ initiative of Business School would not only aid them in showcasing their expertise in teaching business management skills, but also fulfill their Corporate Social responsibility. Mainly with these two objectives as the goals, ARS Corp can initiate actions and start doing the ground work for it. Importantly, with the Business School by providing constructive education to Kava’s youth and thereby taking care of the social angle, ARS can expect fullest support from the Kava Government as well as its citizens. After Government’s clearance comes through, ARS Corp can channel the needed funds to our basic working group in Kava, so they can start constructing the infrastructure s needed for the school. One can expect maximal support for this initiative from the Kava people because education being a key necessity for their development, the school will surely receive good number of Youth enrolment. Problems that will impede the initiative When we under the ARS Corp launch our initiative it cannot be a smooth sailing affair because we could face problems both in the internal and its external environment, which could not only impede the establishment of the Business School, but could also impede its functioning. The first of these ‘destructive’ problems that could impede the setting up of the Business School is Kava’s continuing problems with the natural disasters. As Kava is located in the naturally volatile Pacific Ocean, it has been subjected to various forms of natural disasters, which includes, Tornadoes and the resultant floods, Earthquakes, Volcanic eruptions, etc, etc. The Business school could face the burnt of these natural disast ers, and it could destroy all its infrastructures. Particularly if the ‘epicenter’ of the disasters is close to the Business School, then it will wreck the infrastructures maximally. With most of the island of Kava exposed to the fury of the natural forces, there seems to be no safe place to initiate the construction of the infrastructures. Physically, natural mishaps may take place which influence a country’s capability to make the most out of using some particular natural assets. (Armstrong and Long, 2004). Although, the construction can be started by incorporating all the needed inbuilt protections using technology, there will be some skeptics, who may question the viability and the success of the initiative, only focusing on the risk factors. If this skepticism enters the mind of the top management as well as the stockholders in ARS Crop, then the flow of finances could be restricted. The other impediment from the financial angle is, the management could rise about the costs that may need to reconstruct the infrastructures, after it has been exposed to a natural disaster. As the natural disaster may not completely pull down the infrastructures, there will be structures standing and to rebuild them, financial resources will be needed. So, this factor also has to be taken into consideration. The other problem, which could impede the

Art history (Tibetan Buddhist and Mandalas) Essay

Art history (Tibetan Buddhist and Mandalas) - Essay Example ode of ethics based on the idea of causing no harm to others while recognizing the interconnectedness of life, meditation emerged as a strong tool for finding focus and attaining balanced, well-thought-out decisions. This practice has been perfected in Tibet in the Kalachakra tradition and has been expanded into the Western world through the beautiful and fascinating art form of the mandala. The mandala has a basic circular form that causes it to be recognized as a mandala, but can be highly differentiated to reflect the beliefs, customs, practices or traditions of a particular individual or group. Its primary purpose is to facilitate meditation while serving as a reminder of the deity, the code of ethics and the impermanence of nature. Taking a look into the traditions of the mandala, therefore, can help facilitate greater understanding of more modern interpretations of this ancient art form. Traditionally, the mandala, also known as the dkyil khor, is considered to be the visual representation of the spiritual embodiment of Buddha. â€Å"The word dkyil khor means ‘center-circumference’ and describes both the essential geometric structure and ritual significance of mandalas† (George, 2000). Wayman (1980) indicates that the center is the essence of Buddha while the circumference refers to the concept of grasping, enclosing or containing, thus understanding the essence. Through this translation, the necessarily circular form of the mandala as well as the association of it with the ideas of spirituality and enlightenment becomes clear even as the art form has been transferred out of its original context in the Buddhist temples and in the care of the monks and into the larger mainstream Western society. Because these concepts are intrinsic to the art form, they have necessary transferred out as well. Within Western dictionaries and encyclopedias, the term mandala has been broadly defined as a â€Å"geometric design intended to symbolize the universe, and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Three things i learned after i came to USA as a international student Essay

Three things i learned after i came to USA as a international student from china are independence, self-control and know more about the cultural diversity - Essay Example And more importantly, in today’s world, it is difficult to expect that an act of violence will not receive the similar treatment from the victim. In other words, violence creates violence. In order to avoid this savage behavior and to support and work for the collective coexistence, it is highly essential that difference must not be used as a point for hatred but it should be celebrated as a form of diversity. United States of America is a multi-cultural society where people from different countries, different nations and from different ethnic, social, social and economic and religious backgrounds live together (Chandra and Mahajan 31). And this experience has been very unique and interesting for me for various reasons as I have made so many local friends and have experienced that such negative attitudes are not common as they are told, informed and considered internationally. For example, internationally it is assumed that both China and the United States of America do not have friendly or cordial relations as both do not have similar or favorable attitudes towards each other. And more interestingly, the global media and the national media do not take time to portray this type of relationship between America and China in such a way to highlight intense and deep animosity between them. Consequently, people living in countries follow media and nurture hatred against each others. In other w ords, there are certain â€Å"vested interests† who earn through fuelling negative sentiment in the relationship between both countries. However, the ground reality is always totally different. Before coming to the United States, the effect of such media news was very much on my mind and the subsequent result was that I was unable to have positive and constructive opinion about people. Later on, after entering into the United States, my mindset suddenly changed after meeting with my American

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Scientific paper about reconstructing 3D models of buildings Essay

Scientific paper about reconstructing 3D models of buildings - Essay Example First, most of it is unorganized, uncalibrated, have uncontrolled illumination, image quality and resolution and is widely variable. In essence, coming up with a computer vision technique that can work with most of these images has proved to be a challenge for most researchers. Now how can researchers work with this huge resource; this paper proposes solution such as Image Based Rendering algorithm and Structure from Motion. While a few other researchers such as Brown and Lowe (Lowe 395) have used Structure from Motion to tackle the above problems, the technique used in this paper has several modifications. Structure from Motion is effective in 3D visualization and scene modeling and can operate on hundreds of images obtained from keyword queries (photo tourism). Through photo tourism, it is possible to reconstruct many world sites. In effect, an algorithm that can work effectively on internet photos can enable vital applications such as 3D visualization, communication/media sharing, and localization. Two recent breakthroughs in the field of computer vision namely Structure from Motion and Feature Matching will be the backbone of this paper. Through these techniques, it is possible to reconstruct buildings in 3D to offer virtual and interactive tours for internet users. You can also evaluate the current state of a building and identify degradation and areas that may require renovation or reconstruction. Further, we can come up with creations or display of any building of interest as long as we have its image. Sparse geometry and camera reconstruction The browsing and visualization components of this system requires exact information in regards to the orientation, relative location and inherent parameters like focal lengths for each photo in a collection and sparse three dimension scene geometry. The system also requires a geo-referenced coordinate frame. For the most part, this information can be obtained through electronic components and Global Positioning Sys tem gadgets over the internet. Image files in EXIF tags often have this data though the vast majority of these sources are mostly inaccurate. As such, this system will compute this data via computer vision techniques. First, we will detect feature points in every image after which the system will equate feature points between pairs of images. Finally, the system will run an iterative Structure from Motion procedure to retrieve the camera parameters. Since Structure from Motion procedure will only produce estimates and our system requires absolute values, the system will run iterative procedure to acquire better estimates. How this whole procedure unfolds is detailed below. Detecting feature points will be done using SIFT keypoint detector (Lowe 411). This technique has better invariance to image alteration. The next step is matching keypoint descriptors using the approximate bordering neighbors. For instance, if we want to match two images I and J, first we will create a kd-tree obt ained from element descriptors in J. Next, for each element in I we will locate an adjacent neighbor in J using the kd-tree. For effectiveness, we can use ANN’s priority search algorithm. This technique limits each query to visit a maximum of two hundred bins in the kd-tree. Alternatively, we can use a technique described by Lowe (Lowe 95). In the technique, for each

Monday, September 23, 2019

In Vivo And In Vitro Experimental Research Essay

In Vivo And In Vitro Experimental Research - Essay Example Despite this, in vitro studies can be very difficult to extrapolate from the results to the intact organism. Caution must be exercised not to over-interpret the results in the case of in vitro experiments. For example, an investigation of a bacterial can be positive in a controlled environment but be ineffective in a natural environment.  Despite this, in vitro studies can be very difficult to extrapolate from the results to the intact organism. Caution must be exercised not to over-interpret the results in the case of in vitro experiments. For example, an investigation of a bacterial can be positive in a controlled environment but be ineffective in a natural environment.  Ã‚  On the other hand, in vivo experiments gives a better picture of what is going on inside the organism cell.    All cells contain some machinery can be important in the experiments.   It also can be a disadvantage side since it becomes practically hard to control all the parameters of a cell. Additionall y, living things tend to show variability, even with time, which is somehow hard to fully control. On the aspect of control, in vitro experiments is better as compared to in vivo especially when studying soluble molecules. It can be possible to add small amounts of molecules and maybe assess their binding knowing that no other molecules are interfering. However, this can be disadvantageous since some enzymes may require special conditions to work better which might be a bit hard to create in a test-tube.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rio Tinto Japan Essay Example for Free

Rio Tinto Japan Essay What is an important issue that your company is currently facing? My name is Dermot Vibert. I work with Rio Tinto Japan. On March 11, 2011 I was in our office when we were hit by an extremely strong earthquake. Among the many issues we faced immediately after the earthquake was what would we do on the Monday morning when we had to supposedly return to the office and recommence business. What caused this issue to arise and why is it important? Marketing The earthquake in the afternoon of March 11 was, although it struck 520 kilometers from Tokyo, it was an extremely strong one for us in Tokyo. The buildings shook severely two or three times, and then many, many times thereafter because of the aftershocks. On at least two occasions we had to go under our desks with our helmets on and literally hold on to the legs of the tables. It was that strong. The earthquake knocked out a lot of the power system, and as a result the trains were not able to function normally, and because there was not enough power as well, things like traffic lights, lights in buildings, etc. , all these things were affected. There were many unknowns such as what damage there really was in the Tokyo area, for how long would trains not be running, would there be adequate food in two or three days time, what was going to happen with fuel supply, because when we were watching on television, one of the spectacular scenes we saw was a gas terminus on fire in the Tokyo Bay area, so we had a lack of information, and as a result there were many many uncertainties. We did not know if we could go home that day or not. In the end most of us did not go home. We stayed and had to travel the next day. It just was not a situation conducive to running a business in a normal environment. Can you tell us a bit about yourself and your career path to date? My name is Dermot Vibert. I live in Japan. I have been there for 24 years. I went to university in Montreal, McGill University. I did a BA in East Asian Studies, then a MA in Geography. I then went to Japan in 1988 on the Jet Program where I worked in a high school for three years teaching English. I then entered OKI Electric and spend six and a half years in their electronic components business section, and then in 1997 December I joined Rio Tinto Japan. I have been with them ever since. Can you describe a typical work day for yourself? I will wake up perhaps at 6:00. I leave the house at 7:00. I walk to the train station, which is about an eight minute walk. Then I take an hour and a half train into Tokyo, and then I walk from the final station into our office. I will get to the office about 8:15, 8:30 perhaps. I will then work until perhaps 6:00 in the evening. Maybe two or three evenings a week I will go out with a customer and after that I will return home, so I have a pretty full week. What is your role in the company? I have a number of jobs at Rio Tinto Japan. One of them is I look after our titanium and zircon for Rio Tinto Iron Titanium in Japan and Korea. I also am manager of the president’s office for Rio Tinto Japan. I also have a role in external affairs activities for our company’s branch. Can you describe your leadership style? In general I tend to lead by example where possible, and I also try to encourage my coworkers or subordinates in a positive manner. I prefer not to use harsh criticism and I certainly do not shout. What does your organisation do and how is it different? Rio Tinto Japan has two operations. One is a buy-sell operation which is linked with our aluminum division. Then we have our service provider operation, which basically covers all of the other business units who are doing business in Japan. We facilitate business between them and our customer base here in Japan. Who buys your company products and services? Rio Tinto sells to a broad range of industries in Japan depending on the particular raw material product that we are selling. For example iron ore will go to the steel industry, coal will go to the power companies or to the steel energy, aluminum will go obviously to the automobile industry, titanium will go to the pigment industry, or the titanium sponge industry, copper goes to the smelters, salt, we also have a lot of business in Chlor Alkali side of business, so there are many industries into which we sell Rio Tinto products in Japan. Can you describe the industry within which your company competes? Rio Tinto Japan is located in Tokyo. We have 27 employees. We look after between 13 and 14 products, and Rio Tinto sells these products into dozens of industries. Can you describe the organisation of your company and why it takes this form? Rio Tinto is a publicly listed company. It is headquartered in London. We have the following business groups. We have aluminum, copper, diamonds and minerals, energy, iron ore, exploration, technology and innovation. In Japan, as we are a liaison office and a buy-sell operation we have approximately 27 staff at the moment in one location. Can you describe the flow of activities or value chain of a typical product sold by Rio Tinto? Let us take titanium feed stock. The product is mined in either South Africa, Madagascar, or Quebec. The product is then the Aluminite which is the core product. It is brought to our smelter which is either in Quebec or Richards Bay, South Africa. The product is smelted and therefore upgraded to become a slag or an upgraded slag, which basically means that the TiO2 content is a higher purity than what was the case when it was taken out of the ground in either rock form Quebec or in sand form in Madagascar or South Africa. This slag then is brought over to our market here in Japan. It is then sold to pigment makers, the majority, and also to titanium sponge makers. The pigment makers use the titanium slag to make pigment which they then sell to the panes, plastics and paper industry in particular. There is ink as well. The titanium sponge manufacturers will make sponge out of our product, and they will sell this to a number of industries including the aircraft industry, well it makes its way to the aircraft industry. It also can be found in products such as glasses, golf clubs, water desalination plants, jet engines, and various other applications. How do firms compete in this industry? Rio Tinto competes in Japan with its various natural resource products and minerals. We basically will compete in the various industries with other major mining companies on price, on relationships, on quality, on supply reliability, and various other factors. Obviously they are not always of the same importance, but usually all of these points are important.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Prevention of disease

Prevention of disease Introduction: Prevention of any disease causing agent at livestock farm by managemental mechanisms and operations is known as biosecurity.Due to increased incidence of many foreign and emerging diseases such as FMD and Avian Influenza has made it of major concern. Biosecurity is basic phenomena in disease prevention at farm. there are many factors that contribute towards disease at livestock farm .Their list includes Farm visitors Veterinarians themselves Regulatory personnel Dead stock collectors Friends all of these should understand the importance of biosecurity. if any one of these does not aware of biosecurity he will ultimately contribute to make himself and animal susceptible to disease. May be it is possible that a person carrying infection visit multiple farms in one day and may effect other farms .As a result of which the disease can spread in whole country. So today there is need to develop certain mechanisms and operations to minimize the chances of disease occurance .and this can be done with the help of qualified and experiences staff at farm which include farm manager ,farm supervisors, nutrition and extension specialists, Because various problems in practical implementation for prevention of disease are due to the fact that majority of livestock farms are managed by illiterate and ignorant persons who ignore the basic principles of biosecurity and sanitation .improper sanitation provides the ideal environment to bacteria, parasites ,viruses and fungi and provide shelter to germs. Proper sanitation identify the causes of all preventable diseases and make all those causes ineffective to spread diseases .By this animal can live in the favorable conditions of li fe with provision of clean water, good ventilation and well sanitize sheds. There are four basic steps in prevention of disease. Proper vaccination Detection of disease Removal of intermediate hosts Control meseaure for infectious disease Disease results from the intervention of infectious agent in the farm in outs and farm outputs. Farm inputs includes the health of animal , housing hygiene ,feed and water hygiene .farm out puts includes the farm visitors, wild life and visiting vehicles .Farm input and outputs both should be controlled for prevention of disease. Whenever there is breakage in biosecurity process the infectious agent infects animal which sheds agent in environment (foods, water, housing) and ultimately make animal susceptible to disease .It is shown in following diagram, Biosecurity increases the death rate of germs, reducing chance of infection . Bioseurity not only prevent disease in this way but also enhances the prevention by sanitation of farm premises ,by maintaining close herd and by killing the natural and mechanical carrier of disease .Bioseurity helps us to prevent the disease causing agents inside the farm and stops them to enter at farm but one thing keep in mind that close observation and biosecurity measures should be adopted at constant basis. Biosecurity plan For prevention of disease an effective Biosecurity plan and its accurate implementation is needed at farm. Biosecurity plan limits the chances of disease occurance. It prevents pathogens from entering through different routes of transmission. Biosecurity can be broken through any of following routes shown in diagram below. A biosecurity plan consists of isolation, traffic control and sanitation. At first isolate animal according to age and production. Isolate sick animals for at least one month and they should be separately feeded. They should be properly vaccinated according to appropriate vaccination programme to produce immunity against infectious diseases. Basic purpose of isolation is to control the visitors minimize contact between disease and healthy animals. New animals should pass through process of quarantine remember that new animal are greatest risk to biosecurity. Secondly control the visitors and vehicles that routinely visit your farm .Only concerned visitors should be allowed to visit farm. They should be properly dressed up wearing coveralls and gum boots. Vehicles should be properly cleaned and disinfected before entrance. Vehicles should be free of any unwanted material that can cause disease. Adequate fencing should be provided for protection of animals against wild life and neighboring herds. Lastly ensure sanitation at livestock farm. Sanitation minimizes the effects of infectious agents by adapting hygienic practices and maintaining health status of animal. Provide proper lightning and ventilation in animal sheds. Clean bedding should also provided .Adopt all the sanitary conditions to ensure a healthy calf at birth. Good hygienic conditions for young animal are important in both safeguarding health and future profit .Sanitation should be carried out in all aspects including farm equipments, farm employee, farm visiting vehicles. Milking should be done in hygienic environment .both milking man and milk collecting utensils should be clean. Teats should be dipped regularly and do not handle udder with dry hand because it will lead to chapping of udder. Disinfection is process to kill all bacteria and parasites with the help of specific compounds. Disinfection should be thoroughly carried out. Before disinfection a thorough cleaning of building is necessary to facilitate disinfection. Instruments (hoof knives, clippers, dehorners) are main source of cross contamination so, should be disinfected before and after use. There should be separate instruments that are to be used on disease and healthy animals. As the infectious agents are very small and they become indefinite in dust, cracks and crevices and surfaces of buildings .so, disinfection should be done with extreme care and attention to kill all the life threatening bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral agents. At a limited area disinfectant can be applied with help of brush while for a large area disinfectant can be applied by spraying on that area. Some disinfectants are extremely irritating to eyes and skin so person applying disinfectant should wear gloves to protect skin an d goggles to protect eyes. Disinfectants commonly available in market are pyodine (iodine), parachlorometoxylenol (dettole), methylated spirit, and carbolic acid or phenol. They are available in low cost. Some insecticides are also available that are applied externally to kill ticks, mites and fleas on animal body. These include coal tar, petroleum and nicotine. Employee clothing should be continuously washed with detergents.. In addition to disinfectant the sanitizer can also increase death rate of infectious agents and decrease their population. A sanitizer kills about 99.9 percent of all bacteria, fungi and viruses. Disinfectants are classified into three types sunlight ,heat(hot air, steam, fire) and chemical disinfectants .Chemical disinfectants are further classified into three types compounds (pot.permnganate), alkalies(pot.hydrooxide,limesoln) and acids(boric acids, carbolic acids).classification of disinfectants is shown below in diagram Conclusion Biosecurity is an important step towards the prevention of disease before its occurance as prevention is better than cure .Biosecurity play a significant role in production of healthy and profitable livestock.